Commit 4c1f2b39 authored by Maximilian Sprengholz's avatar Maximilian Sprengholz 😵
Browse files

[ci skip] Built docs

parent b37b439d
Pipeline #14867 skipped
......@@ -4,7 +4,7 @@
<meta charset="utf-8" />
<meta name="generator" content="pandoc" />
<meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0, user-scalable=yes" />
<title>appendix</title>
<title>Online Appendix: From “guestworkers” to EU migrants: A gendered view on the labor market integration of different arrival cohorts in Germany</title>
<style>
code{white-space: pre-wrap;}
span.smallcaps{font-variant: small-caps;}
......@@ -2358,6 +2358,11 @@
</script>
</head>
<body>
<header id="title-block-header">
<h1 class="title">Online Appendix: From “guestworkers” to EU migrants: A gendered view on the labor market integration of different arrival cohorts in Germany</h1>
<p class="subtitle">Version <b></b></p>
<p class="date">20-12-23</p>
</header>
<nav id="TOC" role="doc-toc">
<ul>
<li><a href="#strategy"><span class="toc-section-number">1</span> Strategy</a>
......@@ -2389,16 +2394,6 @@
<li><a href="#references"><span class="toc-section-number">4</span> References</a></li>
</ul>
</nav>
<table style="width:6%;">
<colgroup>
<col style="width: 5%" />
</colgroup>
<tbody>
<tr class="odd">
<td>title: ‘Online Appendix: From “guestworkers” to EU migrants: A gendered view on the labor market integration of different arrival cohorts in Germany’ subtitle:“Version <b><span class="math inline">${CI_COMMIT_TAG}&lt;/b&gt;" "Version &lt;b&gt;1.2.0&lt;/b&gt; XXX" date: "$</span>{DATE}” titleDelim: . figureTemplate: <strong><span class="math display"><em>f</em><em>i</em><em>g</em><em>u</em><em>r</em><em>e</em><em>T</em><em>i</em><em>t</em><em>l</em><em>e</em></span> <span class="math display"><em>i</em></span><span class="math display"><em>t</em><em>i</em><em>t</em><em>l</em><em>e</em><em>D</em><em>e</em><em>l</em><em>i</em><em>m</em></span></strong> <span class="math display"><em>t</em></span> subfigureTemplate: <strong><span class="math display"><em>f</em><em>i</em><em>g</em><em>u</em><em>r</em><em>e</em><em>T</em><em>i</em><em>t</em><em>l</em><em>e</em></span> <span class="math display"><em>i</em></span><span class="math display"><em>t</em><em>i</em><em>t</em><em>l</em><em>e</em><em>D</em><em>e</em><em>l</em><em>i</em><em>m</em></span></strong> <span class="math display"><em>t</em></span> subfigureChildTemplate: <strong>(<span class="math display"><em>i</em></span>)</strong> <span class="math display"><em>t</em></span> tableTemplate: <strong><span class="math display"><em>t</em><em>a</em><em>b</em><em>l</em><em>e</em><em>T</em><em>i</em><em>t</em><em>l</em><em>e</em></span> <span class="math display"><em>i</em></span><span class="math display"><em>t</em><em>i</em><em>t</em><em>l</em><em>e</em><em>D</em><em>e</em><em>l</em><em>i</em><em>m</em></span></strong> <span class="math display"><em>t</em></span> ccsTemplate: "" figPrefix: - “figure” - “figures” tblPrefix: - “table” - “tables” subfigureRefIndexTemplate: <span class="math display"><em>i</em></span><span class="math display"><em>s</em><em>u</em><em>f</em></span><span class="math display"><em>s</em></span></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<hr />
<h1 data-number="1" id="strategy"><span class="header-section-number">1</span> Strategy</h1>
<hr />
......@@ -2407,7 +2402,7 @@
<p>To model labor market outcomes over time for first generation immigrants in Germany, we distinguish between <strong>arrival year cohorts</strong>. These correspond to the following periods:</p>
<div id="tbl:def_cohorts">
<table>
<caption>Table 1: Arrival cohort periods</caption>
<caption><strong>Table 1.</strong> Arrival cohort periods</caption>
<thead>
<tr class="header">
<th>1964-1973</th>
......@@ -2430,7 +2425,7 @@
</ul>
<div id="tbl:def_vars">
<table>
<caption>Table 2: Variable defintion.</caption>
<caption><strong>Table 2.</strong> Variable defintion.</caption>
<colgroup>
<col style="width: 12%" />
<col style="width: 87%" />
......@@ -2468,7 +2463,7 @@
<h2 data-number="1.3" id="sample"><span class="header-section-number">1.3</span> Sample</h2>
<div id="tbl:def_sample">
<table>
<caption>Table 3: Sample restrictions.</caption>
<caption><strong>Table 3.</strong> Sample restrictions.</caption>
<thead>
<tr class="header">
<th>Characteristics</th>
......@@ -2529,12 +2524,12 @@
<h1 data-number="2" id="descriptives"><span class="header-section-number">2</span> Descriptives</h1>
<hr />
<p class="tip">
Source is the Microcensus 1976-2015, except for the cohort composition in Fig. 1 which is based on municipality register data.
Source is the Microcensus 1976-2015, except for the cohort composition in Figure 1 which is based on municipality register data.
</p>
<h2 data-number="2.1" id="cohort-composition"><span class="header-section-number">2.1</span> Cohort composition</h2>
<div class="figure">
<figure>
<img src="../results/figures/sum_cohortcomp.svg" id="fig:cohortcomp" alt="Figure 1: Immigrant inflows to Germany by year and gender (lower panel). Citizenship composition of arrival cohorts by gender (upper panel)." /><figcaption aria-hidden="true">Figure 1: Immigrant inflows to Germany by year and gender (lower panel). Citizenship composition of arrival cohorts by gender (upper panel).</figcaption>
<img src="../results/figures/sum_cohortcomp.svg" id="fig:cohortcomp" alt="Figure 1. Immigrant inflows to Germany by year and gender (lower panel). Citizenship composition of arrival cohorts by gender (upper panel)." /><figcaption aria-hidden="true"><strong>Figure 1.</strong> Immigrant inflows to Germany by year and gender (lower panel). Citizenship composition of arrival cohorts by gender (upper panel).</figcaption>
</figure>
<p class="fignote">
Numbers include inflows to eastern Germany since 1991. Citizenship shares plotted for countries of origin with consistently available information for the full arrival period. For the Soviet Union, the Czech Republic, and Yugoslavia, both aggregated and disaggregated data are provided by the municipalities in some years. In these cases, we distributed the aggregated numbers among the constituting countries corresponding to their respective disaggregated shares.<br /> Source: German municipality registers <span class="citation" data-cites="destatis2020bevoelkerung-1">(Destatis 2020)</span>.
......@@ -2544,18 +2539,18 @@ Numbers include inflows to eastern Germany since 1991. Citizenship shares plotte
<h3 data-number="2.2.1" id="cohort-size-by-period"><span class="header-section-number">2.2.1</span> Cohort size by period</h3>
<div id="fig:sum_cohortsize_period" class="subfigures">
<figure>
<img src="../results/figures/sum_cohortsize_period_f.svg" id="fig:sum_cohortsize_period_f" alt="a" /><figcaption aria-hidden="true">a</figcaption>
<img src="../results/figures/sum_cohortsize_period_f.svg" id="fig:sum_cohortsize_period_f" alt="(a) Women, age 25-54" /><figcaption aria-hidden="true"><strong>(a)</strong> Women, age 25-54</figcaption>
</figure>
<figure>
<img src="../results/figures/sum_cohortsize_period_m.svg" id="fig:sum_cohortsize_period_m" alt="b" /><figcaption aria-hidden="true">b</figcaption>
<img src="../results/figures/sum_cohortsize_period_m.svg" id="fig:sum_cohortsize_period_m" alt="(b) Men, age 25-54" /><figcaption aria-hidden="true"><strong>(b)</strong> Men, age 25-54</figcaption>
</figure>
<figure>
<img src="../results/figures/sum_cohortsize_period_f_unres.svg" id="fig:sum_cohortsize_period_f_unres" alt="c" /><figcaption aria-hidden="true">c</figcaption>
<img src="../results/figures/sum_cohortsize_period_f_unres.svg" id="fig:sum_cohortsize_period_f_unres" alt="(c) Women, age 25+" /><figcaption aria-hidden="true"><strong>(c)</strong> Women, age 25+</figcaption>
</figure>
<figure>
<img src="../results/figures/sum_cohortsize_period_m_unres.svg" id="fig:sum_cohortsize_period_m_unres" alt="d" /><figcaption aria-hidden="true">d</figcaption>
<img src="../results/figures/sum_cohortsize_period_m_unres.svg" id="fig:sum_cohortsize_period_m_unres" alt="(d) Men, age 25+" /><figcaption aria-hidden="true"><strong>(d)</strong> Men, age 25+</figcaption>
</figure>
<p>Figure 2: Cohort size development by period. Different age restrictions.. a — Women, age 25-54, b — Men, age 25-54, c — Women, age 25+, d — Men, age 25+</p>
<p><strong>Figure 2.</strong> Cohort size development by period. Different age restrictions.</p>
</div>
<p class="fignote">
Sample is restricted to western Germany, including Berlin. <br /> Source: Microcensus Scientific Use Files, DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.21242/12211.1976.00.00.3.1.0">10.21242/12211.1976.00.00.3.1.0</a> to <a href="https://doi.org/10.21242/12211.2015.00.00.3.1.0">10.21242/12211.2015.00.00.3.1.0</a>, own calculations.
......@@ -2563,7 +2558,7 @@ Sample is restricted to western Germany, including Berlin. <br /> Source: Microc
<div class="tabledetails">
<div id="tbl:sum_cohortsize_period_f">
<table>
<caption>Table 4: Cohort size development by period, Women</caption>
<caption><strong>Table 4.</strong> Cohort size development by period, Women</caption>
<tbody>
</tbody>
</table>
......@@ -3444,7 +3439,7 @@ Total (n=2,340,597)
<div class="tabledetails">
<div id="tbl:sum_cohortsize_period_f_unres">
<table>
<caption>Table 5: Cohort size development by period, Women (no upper age limit)</caption>
<caption><strong>Table 5.</strong> Cohort size development by period, Women (no upper age limit)</caption>
<tbody>
</tbody>
</table>
......@@ -4325,7 +4320,7 @@ Total (n=4,297,705)
<div class="tabledetails">
<div id="tbl:sum_cohortsize_period_m">
<table>
<caption>Table 6: Cohort size development by period, Men</caption>
<caption><strong>Table 6.</strong> Cohort size development by period, Men</caption>
<tbody>
</tbody>
</table>
......@@ -5206,7 +5201,7 @@ Total (n=2,301,163)
<div class="tabledetails">
<div id="tbl:sum_cohortsize_period_m_unres">
<table>
<caption>Table 7: Cohort size development by period, Men (no upper age limit)</caption>
<caption><strong>Table 7.</strong> Cohort size development by period, Men (no upper age limit)</caption>
<tbody>
</tbody>
</table>
......@@ -6087,19 +6082,19 @@ Total (n=3,801,564)
<p><br /> Why do we see an increase in cohort size for all arrival cohorts from 2004-2006 and for the first cohort from 1976-1985? The reason is non-response on the arrival year variable, which substantially varies over years:</p>
<div class="figure">
<figure>
<img src="../results/figures/sum_yimmi_nonres.svg" id="fig:yimmi_nonres" alt="Figure 3: Non-response on arrival year variable by year and gender." /><figcaption aria-hidden="true">Figure 3: Non-response on arrival year variable by year and gender.</figcaption>
<img src="../results/figures/sum_yimmi_nonres.svg" id="fig:yimmi_nonres" alt="Figure 3. Non-response on arrival year variable by year and gender." /><figcaption aria-hidden="true"><strong>Figure 3.</strong> Non-response on arrival year variable by year and gender.</figcaption>
</figure>
<p class="fignote">
Corresponds to analysis sample except for arrival year restrictions. Shares for persons with non-German citizenship who were born abroad. <br /> Source: Microcensus Scientific Use Files, DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.21242/12211.1976.00.00.3.1.0">10.21242/12211.1976.00.00.3.1.0</a> to <a href="https://doi.org/10.21242/12211.2015.00.00.3.1.0">10.21242/12211.2015.00.00.3.1.0</a>, own calculations.
</p>
</div>
<p>Since 2005, the immigration year question is part of the mandatory questionnaire. The lower non-response rates mean overall higher observation numbers. Tbl. 8 shows that the relative size of cohorts in percent increased to a similar extent at this cut-off. So, probably no selection on the cohort (selection on other characteristics still possible, of course). The changes for cohorts 1964-73 and 1994-2003 are due the age range of 25-54, shares are even closer across years without this restriction. @</p>
<p>Since 2005, the immigration year question is part of the mandatory questionnaire. The lower non-response rates mean overall higher observation numbers. Table 8 shows that the relative size of cohorts in percent increased to a similar extent at this cut-off. So, probably no selection on the cohort (selection on other characteristics still possible, of course). The changes for cohorts 1964-73 and 1994-2003 are due the age range of 25-54, shares are even closer across years without this restriction. @</p>
<p>test <span class="citation" data-cites="import">(<strong>import?</strong>)</span></p>
<div class="tabledetails">
<div id="tbl:sum_cohort_sel_nonres_2004-2006">
<table>
<caption>Table 8: Cohort selective nonresponse test 2004-2006</caption>
<caption><strong>Table 8.</strong> Cohort selective nonresponse test 2004-2006</caption>
<tbody>
</tbody>
</table>
......@@ -6320,24 +6315,24 @@ Generally, these plots are not really interpretable because many processes are a
</p>
<div id="fig:sum_cohortsize_timeres" class="subfigures">
<figure>
<img src="../results/figures/sum_cohortsize_timeres_f.svg" id="fig:sum_cohortsize_timeres_f" alt="a" /><figcaption aria-hidden="true">a</figcaption>
<img src="../results/figures/sum_cohortsize_timeres_f.svg" id="fig:sum_cohortsize_timeres_f" alt="(a) Women, age 25-54" /><figcaption aria-hidden="true"><strong>(a)</strong> Women, age 25-54</figcaption>
</figure>
<figure>
<img src="../results/figures/sum_cohortsize_timeres_m.svg" id="fig:sum_cohortsize_timeres_m" alt="b" /><figcaption aria-hidden="true">b</figcaption>
<img src="../results/figures/sum_cohortsize_timeres_m.svg" id="fig:sum_cohortsize_timeres_m" alt="(b) Men, age 25-54" /><figcaption aria-hidden="true"><strong>(b)</strong> Men, age 25-54</figcaption>
</figure>
<figure>
<img src="../results/figures/sum_cohortsize_timeres_f_18_54.svg" id="fig:sum_cohortsize_timeres_f_18_54" alt="c" /><figcaption aria-hidden="true">c</figcaption>
<img src="../results/figures/sum_cohortsize_timeres_f_18_54.svg" id="fig:sum_cohortsize_timeres_f_18_54" alt="(c) Women, age 18-54" /><figcaption aria-hidden="true"><strong>(c)</strong> Women, age 18-54</figcaption>
</figure>
<figure>
<img src="../results/figures/sum_cohortsize_timeres_m_18_54.svg" id="fig:sum_cohortsize_timeres_m_18_54" alt="d" /><figcaption aria-hidden="true">d</figcaption>
<img src="../results/figures/sum_cohortsize_timeres_m_18_54.svg" id="fig:sum_cohortsize_timeres_m_18_54" alt="(d) Men, age 18-54" /><figcaption aria-hidden="true"><strong>(d)</strong> Men, age 18-54</figcaption>
</figure>
<figure>
<img src="../results/figures/sum_cohortsize_timeres_f_unres.svg" id="fig:sum_cohortsize_timeres_f_unres" alt="e" /><figcaption aria-hidden="true">e</figcaption>
<img src="../results/figures/sum_cohortsize_timeres_f_unres.svg" id="fig:sum_cohortsize_timeres_f_unres" alt="(e) Women, age 25+" /><figcaption aria-hidden="true"><strong>(e)</strong> Women, age 25+</figcaption>
</figure>
<figure>
<img src="../results/figures/sum_cohortsize_timeres_m_unres.svg" id="fig:sum_cohortsize_timeres_m_unres" alt="f" /><figcaption aria-hidden="true">f</figcaption>
<img src="../results/figures/sum_cohortsize_timeres_m_unres.svg" id="fig:sum_cohortsize_timeres_m_unres" alt="(f) Men, age 25+" /><figcaption aria-hidden="true"><strong>(f)</strong> Men, age 25+</figcaption>
</figure>
<p>Figure 4: Cohort size development by duration of stay. Different age restrictions.. a — Women, age 25-54, b — Men, age 25-54, c — Women, age 18-54, d — Men, age 18-54, e — Women, age 25+, f — Men, age 25+</p>
<p><strong>Figure 4.</strong> Cohort size development by duration of stay. Different age restrictions.</p>
</div>
<p class="fignote">
Sample is restricted to western Germany, including Berlin. <br /> Source: Microcensus Scientific Use Files, DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.21242/12211.1976.00.00.3.1.0">10.21242/12211.1976.00.00.3.1.0</a> to <a href="https://doi.org/10.21242/12211.2015.00.00.3.1.0">10.21242/12211.2015.00.00.3.1.0</a>, own calculations.
......@@ -6345,7 +6340,7 @@ Sample is restricted to western Germany, including Berlin. <br /> Source: Microc
<div class="tabledetails">
<div id="tbl:sum_cohortsize_timeres_f">
<table>
<caption>Table 9: Cohort size development by duration of stay, Women</caption>
<caption><strong>Table 9.</strong> Cohort size development by duration of stay, Women</caption>
<tbody>
</tbody>
</table>
......@@ -7127,7 +7122,7 @@ Total (n=140,893)
<div class="tabledetails">
<div id="tbl:sum_cohortsize_timeres_f_18_54">
<table>
<caption>Table 10: Cohort size development by duration of stay, Women (age 18-54)</caption>
<caption><strong>Table 10.</strong> Cohort size development by duration of stay, Women (age 18-54)</caption>
<tbody>
</tbody>
</table>
......@@ -7909,7 +7904,7 @@ Total (n=150,541)
<div class="tabledetails">
<div id="tbl:sum_cohortsize_timeres_f_unres">
<table>
<caption>Table 11: Cohort size development by duration of stay, Women (no upper age limit)</caption>
<caption><strong>Table 11.</strong> Cohort size development by duration of stay, Women (no upper age limit)</caption>
<tbody>
</tbody>
</table>
......@@ -8691,7 +8686,7 @@ Total (n=162,183)
<div class="tabledetails">
<div id="tbl:sum_cohortsize_timeres_m">
<table>
<caption>Table 12: Cohort size development by duration of stay, Men</caption>
<caption><strong>Table 12.</strong> Cohort size development by duration of stay, Men</caption>
<tbody>
</tbody>
</table>
......@@ -9473,7 +9468,7 @@ Total (n=132,758)
<div class="tabledetails">
<div id="tbl:sum_cohortsize_timeres_m_18_54">
<table>
<caption>Table 13: Cohort size development by duration of stay, Men (age 18-54)</caption>
<caption><strong>Table 13.</strong> Cohort size development by duration of stay, Men (age 18-54)</caption>
<tbody>
</tbody>
</table>
......@@ -10255,7 +10250,7 @@ Total (n=138,871)
<div class="tabledetails">
<div id="tbl:sum_cohortsize_timeres_m_unres">
<table>
<caption>Table 14: Cohort size development by duration of stay, Men (no upper age limit)</caption>
<caption><strong>Table 14.</strong> Cohort size development by duration of stay, Men (no upper age limit)</caption>
<tbody>
</tbody>
</table>
......@@ -11035,11 +11030,11 @@ Total (n=152,795)
</details>
</div>
<h3 data-number="2.2.3" id="education-by-duration-of-stay"><span class="header-section-number">2.2.3</span> Education by duration of stay</h3>
<p>Regarding the presumed higher remigration rates for skilled individuals, we observe higher average levels of education for migrants with a shorter duration of stay compared to migrants with a longer duration of stay (see Tbls. 16, 20). We find the largest differences within the first years of residence. For example, consider migrant women from arrival cohort 1984-1993. Given a duration of stay between 0 and 3 years, 25.4 percent of these women had some sort of tertiary education. Yet, for a duration of stay of 7-9 years, the share of women with tertiary education was only 18.3 percent. We find similar patterns across cohorts and stronger patterns for men than women, matching our results for occupational status (see Figs. 11 (a), 11 (b)). Only a minor part of these patterns is explained by selectivity in arrival age (see Tbls. 15, 19, Figs. 12 (c), 12 (d)). Thus, on average, highly educated (labor) migrants seem to stay for rather short durations.</p>
<p>Regarding the presumed higher remigration rates for skilled individuals, we observe higher average levels of education for migrants with a shorter duration of stay compared to migrants with a longer duration of stay (see Tables 16, 20). We find the largest differences within the first years of residence. For example, consider migrant women from arrival cohort 1984-1993. Given a duration of stay between 0 and 3 years, 25.4 percent of these women had some sort of tertiary education. Yet, for a duration of stay of 7-9 years, the share of women with tertiary education was only 18.3 percent. We find similar patterns across cohorts and stronger patterns for men than women, matching our results for occupational status (see Figures 11a, 11b). Only a minor part of these patterns is explained by selectivity in arrival age (see Tables 15, 19, Figures 12c, 12d). Thus, on average, highly educated (labor) migrants seem to stay for rather short durations.</p>
<div class="tabledetails">
<div id="tbl:sum_isced_arrage_f">
<table>
<caption>Table 15: Educational levels (ISCED-97) by cohort and arrival age groups, Women (duration of stay 1-6)</caption>
<caption><strong>Table 15.</strong> Educational levels (ISCED-97) by cohort and arrival age groups, Women (duration of stay 1-6)</caption>
<tbody>
</tbody>
</table>
......@@ -11303,7 +11298,7 @@ Total (n=33,529)
<div id="tbl:sum_isced_remig_f">
<table>
<caption>Table 16: Educational levels (ISCED-97) by cohort and duration of stay, Women</caption>
<caption><strong>Table 16.</strong> Educational levels (ISCED-97) by cohort and duration of stay, Women</caption>
<tbody>
</tbody>
</table>
......@@ -12001,7 +11996,7 @@ Total (n=9,053)
<div id="tbl:sum_isced_remig_f_18_54">
<table>
<caption>Table 17: Educational levels (ISCED-97) by cohort and duration of stay, Women (age 18-54)</caption>
<caption><strong>Table 17.</strong> Educational levels (ISCED-97) by cohort and duration of stay, Women (age 18-54)</caption>
<tbody>
</tbody>
</table>
......@@ -12699,7 +12694,7 @@ Total (n=9,053)
<div id="tbl:sum_isced_remig_f_unres">
<table>
<caption>Table 18: Educational levels (ISCED-97) by cohort and duration of stay, Women (no upper age limit)</caption>
<caption><strong>Table 18.</strong> Educational levels (ISCED-97) by cohort and duration of stay, Women (no upper age limit)</caption>
<tbody>
</tbody>
</table>
......@@ -13396,7 +13391,7 @@ Total (n=11,051)
<div class="tabledetails">
<div id="tbl:sum_isced_arrage_m">
<table>
<caption>Table 19: Educational levels (ISCED-97) by cohort and arrival age groups, Men (duration of stay 1-6)</caption>
<caption><strong>Table 19.</strong> Educational levels (ISCED-97) by cohort and arrival age groups, Men (duration of stay 1-6)</caption>
<tbody>
</tbody>
</table>
......@@ -13660,7 +13655,7 @@ Total (n=31,195)
<div id="tbl:sum_isced_remig_m">
<table>
<caption>Table 20: Educational levels (ISCED-97) by cohort and duration of stay, Men</caption>
<caption><strong>Table 20.</strong> Educational levels (ISCED-97) by cohort and duration of stay, Men</caption>
<tbody>
</tbody>
</table>
......@@ -14358,7 +14353,7 @@ Total (n=9,301)
<div id="tbl:sum_isced_remig_m_18_54">
<table>
<caption>Table 21: Educational levels (ISCED-97) by cohort and duration of stay, Men (age 18-54)</caption>
<caption><strong>Table 21.</strong> Educational levels (ISCED-97) by cohort and duration of stay, Men (age 18-54)</caption>
<tbody>
</tbody>
</table>
......@@ -15056,7 +15051,7 @@ Total (n=9,301)
<div id="tbl:sum_isced_remig_m_unres">
<table>
<caption>Table 22: Educational levels (ISCED-97) by cohort and duration of stay, Men (no upper age limit)</caption>
<caption><strong>Table 22.</strong> Educational levels (ISCED-97) by cohort and duration of stay, Men (no upper age limit)</caption>
<tbody>
</tbody>
</table>
......@@ -15752,11 +15747,11 @@ Total (n=11,121)
</div>
<h3 data-number="2.2.4" id="education-by-naturalization-status"><span class="header-section-number">2.2.4</span> Education by naturalization status</h3>
<p><em>Note: Unrestricted in terms of upper age bound.</em></p>
<p>We find that average educational levels of immigrant women and men are lower for longer durations of stay, but the decrease is much less pronounced than the one over the first years (see Tbls. 16, 20). A possible explanation of this decline is again selective outmigration, but also selective naturalization might play a larger role, given that long durations of residence are required for migrants to naturalize in Germany (currently: 8 years). As we cannot follow the same individuals over time in the Microcensus, there is no way to assess the magnitude of both possible processes. However, in recent waves of the Microcensus information on naturalization is available. Based on the years 2007-2015, we compared the educational levels of migrants who naturalized and those who did not (without upper age limit, see Tbls. 23, 24). Especially regarding the earlier cohorts, naturalized migrant women and men seem to be much better educated (naturalization rates being fairly even between genders). Consequently, if more and more skilled migrants naturalize with longer durations of stay, these drop out of our sample, leading to an underestimation of occupational mobility of arrival cohorts.</p>
<p>We find that average educational levels of immigrant women and men are lower for longer durations of stay, but the decrease is much less pronounced than the one over the first years (see Tables 16, 20). A possible explanation of this decline is again selective outmigration, but also selective naturalization might play a larger role, given that long durations of residence are required for migrants to naturalize in Germany (currently: 8 years). As we cannot follow the same individuals over time in the Microcensus, there is no way to assess the magnitude of both possible processes. However, in recent waves of the Microcensus information on naturalization is available. Based on the years 2007-2015, we compared the educational levels of migrants who naturalized and those who did not (without upper age limit, see Tables 23, 24). Especially regarding the earlier cohorts, naturalized migrant women and men seem to be much better educated (naturalization rates being fairly even between genders). Consequently, if more and more skilled migrants naturalize with longer durations of stay, these drop out of our sample, leading to an underestimation of occupational mobility of arrival cohorts.</p>
<div class="tabledetails">
<div id="tbl:nat_isced_f_unres">
<table>
<caption>Table 23: ISCED-97 composition by arrival cohort and naturalization, Women, 2007-2015 (no upper age limit)</caption>
<caption><strong>Table 23.</strong> ISCED-97 composition by arrival cohort and naturalization, Women, 2007-2015 (no upper age limit)</caption>
<tbody>
</tbody>
</table>
......@@ -16234,7 +16229,7 @@ N
<div class="tabledetails">
<div id="tbl:nat_isced_m_unres">
<table>
<caption>Table 24: ISCED-97 composition by arrival cohort and naturalization, Men, 2007-2015 (no upper age limit)</caption>
<caption><strong>Table 24.</strong> ISCED-97 composition by arrival cohort and naturalization, Men, 2007-2015 (no upper age limit)</caption>
<tbody>
</tbody>
</table>
......@@ -16717,7 +16712,7 @@ N
<div class="tabledetails">
<div id="tbl:nat_empl_dummy_f">
<table>
<caption>Table 25: Employment rate (in %) by arrival cohort and naturalization, Women, 2007-2015</caption>
<caption><strong>Table 25.</strong> Employment rate (in %) by arrival cohort and naturalization, Women, 2007-2015</caption>
<tbody>
</tbody>
</table>
......@@ -16878,7 +16873,7 @@ Total
<div class="tabledetails">
<div id="tbl:nat_empl_dummy_n_f">
<table>
<caption>Table 26: No. of obs.: Employment rate (in %) by arrival cohort and naturalization, Women, 2007-2015</caption>
<caption><strong>Table 26.</strong> No. of obs.: Employment rate (in %) by arrival cohort and naturalization, Women, 2007-2015</caption>
<tbody>
</tbody>
</table>
......@@ -17083,7 +17078,7 @@ N
<div class="tabledetails">
<div id="tbl:nat_empl_dummy_m">
<table>
<caption>Table 27: Employment rate (in %) by arrival cohort and naturalization, Men, 2007-2015</caption>
<caption><strong>Table 27.</strong> Employment rate (in %) by arrival cohort and naturalization, Men, 2007-2015</caption>
<tbody>
</tbody>
</table>
......@@ -17244,7 +17239,7 @@ Total
<div class="tabledetails">
<div id="tbl:nat_empl_dummy_n_m">
<table>
<caption>Table 28: No. of obs.: Employment rate (in %) by arrival cohort and naturalization, Men, 2007-2015</caption>
<caption><strong>Table 28.</strong> No. of obs.: Employment rate (in %) by arrival cohort and naturalization, Men, 2007-2015</caption>
<tbody>
</tbody>
</table>
......@@ -17448,12 +17443,12 @@ N
</div>
<div id="fig:nat_empl_dummy" class="subfigures">
<figure>
<img src="../results/figures/nat_empl_dummy_period_f.svg" id="fig:nat_empl_dummy_period_f" alt="a" /><figcaption aria-hidden="true">a</figcaption>
<img src="../results/figures/nat_empl_dummy_period_f.svg" id="fig:nat_empl_dummy_period_f" alt="(a) Women, by period" /><figcaption aria-hidden="true"><strong>(a)</strong> Women, by period</figcaption>
</figure>
<figure>
<img src="../results/figures/nat_empl_dummy_period_m.svg" id="fig:nat_empl_dummy_period_m" alt="b" /><figcaption aria-hidden="true">b</figcaption>
<img src="../results/figures/nat_empl_dummy_period_m.svg" id="fig:nat_empl_dummy_period_m" alt="(b) Men, by period" /><figcaption aria-hidden="true"><strong>(b)</strong> Men, by period</figcaption>
</figure>
<p>Figure 5: Employment rates shown for non-German immigrants (our standard definition, solid lines) and all immigrants including those who naturalized (dashed lines).. a — Women, by period, b — Men, by period</p>
<p><strong>Figure 5.</strong> Employment rates shown for non-German immigrants (our standard definition, solid lines) and all immigrants including those who naturalized (dashed lines).</p>
</div>
<p class="fignote">
Sample is restricted to western Germany, including Berlin. <br /> Source: Microcensus Scientific Use Files, DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.21242/12211.1976.00.00.3.1.0">10.21242/12211.1976.00.00.3.1.0</a> to <a href="https://doi.org/10.21242/12211.2015.00.00.3.1.0">10.21242/12211.2015.00.00.3.1.0</a>, own calculations.
......@@ -17463,7 +17458,7 @@ Sample is restricted to western Germany, including Berlin. <br /> Source: Microc
<div class="tabledetails">
<div id="tbl:nat_ahours_f">
<table>
<caption>Table 29: Weekly working hours (actual) by arrival cohort and naturalization, Women, 2007-2015</caption>
<caption><strong>Table 29.</strong> Weekly working hours (actual) by arrival cohort and naturalization, Women, 2007-2015</caption>
<tbody>
</tbody>
</table>
......@@ -17624,7 +17619,7 @@ Total
<div class="tabledetails">
<div id="tbl:nat_ahours_n_f">
<table>
<caption>Table 30: No. of obs.: Weekly working hours (actual) by arrival cohort and naturalization, Women, 2007-2015</caption>
<caption><strong>Table 30.</strong> No. of obs.: Weekly working hours (actual) by arrival cohort and naturalization, Women, 2007-2015</caption>
<tbody>
</tbody>
</table>
......@@ -17829,7 +17824,7 @@ N
<div class="tabledetails">
<div id="tbl:nat_ahours_m">
<table>
<caption>Table 31: Weekly working hours (actual) by arrival cohort and naturalization, Men, 2007-2015</caption>
<caption><strong>Table 31.</strong> Weekly working hours (actual) by arrival cohort and naturalization, Men, 2007-2015</caption>
<tbody>
</tbody>
</table>
......@@ -17990,7 +17985,7 @@ Total
<div class="tabledetails">
<div id="tbl:nat_ahours_n_m">
<table>
<caption>Table 32: No. of obs.: Weekly working hours (actual) by arrival cohort and naturalization, Men, 2007-2015</caption>
<caption><strong>Table 32.</strong> No. of obs.: Weekly working hours (actual) by arrival cohort and naturalization, Men, 2007-2015</caption>
<tbody>
</tbody>
</table>
......@@ -18194,12 +18189,12 @@ N
</div>
<div id="fig:nat_ahours" class="subfigures">
<figure>
<img src="../results/figures/nat_ahours_period_f.svg" id="fig:nat_ahours_period_f" alt="a" /><figcaption aria-hidden="true">a</figcaption>
<img src="../results/figures/nat_ahours_period_f.svg" id="fig:nat_ahours_period_f" alt="(a) Women, by period" /><figcaption aria-hidden="true"><strong>(a)</strong> Women, by period</figcaption>
</figure>
<figure>
<img src="../results/figures/nat_ahours_period_m.svg" id="fig:nat_ahours_period_m" alt="b" /><figcaption aria-hidden="true">b</figcaption>
<img src="../results/figures/nat_ahours_period_m.svg" id="fig:nat_ahours_period_m" alt="(b) Men, by period" /><figcaption aria-hidden="true"><strong>(b)</strong> Men, by period</figcaption>
</figure>
<p>Figure 6: Weekly working hours shown for non-German immigrants (our standard definition, solid lines) and all immigrants including those who naturalized (dashed lines).. a — Women, by period, b — Men, by period</p>
<p><strong>Figure 6.</strong> Weekly working hours shown for non-German immigrants (our standard definition, solid lines) and all immigrants including those who naturalized (dashed lines).</p>
</div>
<p class="fignote">
Sample is restricted to western Germany, including Berlin. <br /> Source: Microcensus Scientific Use Files, DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.21242/12211.1976.00.00.3.1.0">10.21242/12211.1976.00.00.3.1.0</a> to <a href="https://doi.org/10.21242/12211.2015.00.00.3.1.0">10.21242/12211.2015.00.00.3.1.0</a>, own calculations.
......@@ -18209,7 +18204,7 @@ Sample is restricted to western Germany, including Berlin. <br /> Source: Microc
<div class="tabledetails">
<div id="tbl:nat_isei88_res_f">
<table>
<caption>Table 33: ISEI-88 (employed only) by arrival cohort and naturalization, Women, 2007-2015</caption>
<caption><strong>Table 33.</strong> ISEI-88 (employed only) by arrival cohort and naturalization, Women, 2007-2015</caption>
<tbody>
</tbody>
</table>
......@@ -18370,7 +18365,7 @@ Total
<div class="tabledetails">
<div id="tbl:nat_isei88_res_n_f">
<table>
<caption>Table 34: No. of obs.: ISEI-88 (employed only) by arrival cohort and naturalization, Women, 2007-2015</caption>
<caption><strong>Table 34.</strong> No. of obs.: ISEI-88 (employed only) by arrival cohort and naturalization, Women, 2007-2015</caption>
<tbody>
</tbody>
</table>
......@@ -18575,7 +18570,7 @@ N
<div class="tabledetails">
<div id="tbl:nat_isei88_res_m">
<table>
<caption>Table 35: ISEI-88 (employed only) by arrival cohort and naturalization, Men, 2007-2015</caption>
<caption><strong>Table 35.</strong> ISEI-88 (employed only) by arrival cohort and naturalization, Men, 2007-2015</caption>
<tbody>
</tbody>
</table>
......@@ -18736,7 +18731,7 @@ Total
<div class="tabledetails">
<div id="tbl:nat_isei88_res_n_m">
<table>
<caption>Table 36: No. of obs.: ISEI-88 (employed only) by arrival cohort and naturalization, Men, 2007-2015</caption>
<caption><strong>Table 36.</strong> No. of obs.: ISEI-88 (employed only) by arrival cohort and naturalization, Men, 2007-2015</caption>
<tbody>
</tbody>
</table>
......@@ -18940,12 +18935,12 @@ N
</div>
<div id="fig:nat_isei_res" class="subfigures">
<figure>
<img src="../results/figures/nat_isei88_res_period_f.svg" id="fig:nat_isei88_res_period_f" alt="a" /><figcaption aria-hidden="true">a</figcaption>
<img src="../results/figures/nat_isei88_res_period_f.svg" id="fig:nat_isei88_res_period_f" alt="(a) Women, by period" /><figcaption aria-hidden="true"><strong>(a)</strong> Women, by period</figcaption>
</figure>
<figure>
<img src="../results/figures/nat_isei88_res_period_m.svg" id="fig:nat_isei88_res_period_m" alt="b" /><figcaption aria-hidden="true">b</figcaption>
<img src="../results/figures/nat_isei88_res_period_m.svg" id="fig:nat_isei88_res_period_m" alt="(b) Men, by period" /><figcaption aria-hidden="true"><strong>(b)</strong> Men, by period</figcaption>
</figure>
<p>Figure 7: Employment rates shown for non-German immigrants (our standard definition, solid lines) and all immigrants including those who naturalized (dashed lines).. a — Women, by period, b — Men, by period</p>
<p><strong>Figure 7.</strong> Employment rates shown for non-German immigrants (our standard definition, solid lines) and all immigrants including those who naturalized (dashed lines).</p>
</div>
<p class="fignote">
Sample is restricted to western Germany, including Berlin.<br /> Source: Microcensus Scientific Use Files, DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.21242/12211.1976.00.00.3.1.0">10.21242/12211.1976.00.00.3.1.0</a> to <a href="https://doi.org/10.21242/12211.2015.00.00.3.1.0">10.21242/12211.2015.00.00.3.1.0</a>, own calculations.
......@@ -18955,7 +18950,7 @@ Sample is restricted to western Germany, including Berlin.<br /> Source: Microce
<div id="tbl:sum_edu_age_init">
<table>
<caption>Table 37: Education and age composition by arrival cohort</caption>
<caption><strong>Table 37.</strong> Education and age composition by arrival cohort</caption>
<tbody>
</tbody>
</table>
......@@ -19372,7 +19367,7 @@ Arrival cohort 2004-10 (n=3,723)
<div class="tabledetails">
<div id="tbl:sum_arrage_f">
<table>
<caption>Table 38: Arrival age composition by cohort, Women</caption>
<caption><strong>Table 38.</strong> Arrival age composition by cohort, Women</caption>
<tbody>
</tbody>
</table>
......@@ -19556,7 +19551,7 @@ Total (n=146,243)
<div class="tabledetails">
<div id="tbl:sum_arrage_m">
<table>
<caption>Table 39: Arrival age composition by cohort, Men</caption>
<caption><strong>Table 39.</strong> Arrival age composition by cohort, Men</caption>
<tbody>
</tbody>
</table>
......@@ -19746,18 +19741,18 @@ Indicator means. Plotted if cell count &gt;= 100.
<h2 data-number="3.1" id="employment-1"><span class="header-section-number">3.1</span> Employment</h2>
<div id="fig:empl_dummy" class="subfigures">
<figure>
<img src="../results/figures/empl_dummy_timeres_f.svg" id="fig:empl_dummy_timeres_f" alt="a" /><figcaption aria-hidden="true">a</figcaption>
<img src="../results/figures/empl_dummy_timeres_f.svg" id="fig:empl_dummy_timeres_f" alt="(a) Women, by duration of stay" /><figcaption aria-hidden="true"><strong>(a)</strong> Women, by duration of stay</figcaption>
</figure>
<figure>
<img src="../results/figures/empl_dummy_timeres_m.svg" id="fig:empl_dummy_timeres_m" alt="b" /><figcaption aria-hidden="true">b</figcaption>
<img src="../results/figures/empl_dummy_timeres_m.svg" id="fig:empl_dummy_timeres_m" alt="(b) Men, by duration of stay" /><figcaption aria-hidden="true"><strong>(b)</strong> Men, by duration of stay</figcaption>
</figure>
<figure>
<img src="../results/figures/empl_dummy_period_f.svg" id="fig:empl_dummy_period_f" alt="c" /><figcaption aria-hidden="true">c</figcaption>
<img src="../results/figures/empl_dummy_period_f.svg" id="fig:empl_dummy_period_f" alt="(c) Women, by period" /><figcaption aria-hidden="true"><strong>(c)</strong> Women, by period</figcaption>
</figure>
<figure>
<img src="../results/figures/empl_dummy_period_m.svg" id="fig:empl_dummy_period_m" alt="d" /><figcaption aria-hidden="true">d</figcaption>
<img src="../results/figures/empl_dummy_period_m.svg" id="fig:empl_dummy_period_m" alt="(d) Men, by period" /><figcaption aria-hidden="true"><strong>(d)</strong> Men, by period</figcaption>
</figure>
<p>Figure 8: Employment rates (as share of sample population) by arrival cohort, gender, duration of stay and period.. a — Women, by duration of stay, b — Men, by duration of stay, c — Women, by period, d — Men, by period</p>
<p><strong>Figure 8.</strong> Employment rates (as share of sample population) by arrival cohort, gender, duration of stay and period.</p>
</div>
<p class="fignote">
Sample is restricted to western Germany, including Berlin . <br /> Source: Microcensus Scientific Use Files, DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.21242/12211.1976.00.00.3.1.0">10.21242/12211.1976.00.00.3.1.0</a> to <a href="https://doi.org/10.21242/12211.2015.00.00.3.1.0">10.21242/12211.2015.00.00.3.1.0</a>, own calculations.
......@@ -19765,7 +19760,7 @@ Sample is restricted to western Germany, including Berlin . <br /> Source: Micro
<div class="tabledetails">
<div id="tbl:empl_dummy_timeres_f">
<table>
<caption>Table 40: Means by arrival cohort and duration of stay: Employment rate (in %), Women</caption>
<caption><strong>Table 40.</strong> Means by arrival cohort and duration of stay: Employment rate (in %), Women</caption>
<tbody>
</tbody>
</table>
......@@ -20583,7 +20578,7 @@ Total
<div class="tabledetails">
<div id="tbl:empl_dummy_timeres_m">
<table>
<caption>Table 41: Means by arrival cohort and duration of stay: Employment rate (in %), Men</caption>
<caption><strong>Table 41.</strong> Means by arrival cohort and duration of stay: Employment rate (in %), Men</caption>
<tbody>
</tbody>
</table>
......@@ -21401,7 +21396,7 @@ Total
<div class="tabledetails">
<div id="tbl:empl_dummy_period_f">
<table>
<caption>Table 42: Means by arrival cohort and period: Employment rate (in %), Women</caption>
<caption><strong>Table 42.</strong> Means by arrival cohort and period: Employment rate (in %), Women</caption>
<tbody>
</tbody>
</table>
......@@ -22212,7 +22207,7 @@ Total
<div class="tabledetails">
<div id="tbl:empl_dummy_period_m">
<table>
<caption>Table 43: Means by arrival cohort and period: Employment rate (in %), Men</caption>
<caption><strong>Table 43.</strong> Means by arrival cohort and period: Employment rate (in %), Men</caption>
<tbody>
</tbody>
</table>
......@@ -23025,7 +23020,7 @@ Total
<div id="tbl:sum_cohort_1_emplst_m">
<table>
<caption>Table 44: Employment status cohort 1964-1973 by period, Men</caption>
<caption><strong>Table 44.</strong> Employment status cohort 1964-1973 by period, Men</caption>
<tbody>
</tbody>
</table>
......@@ -23820,7 +23815,7 @@ Total (n=36,124)
<div id="tbl:sum_cohort_1_subsis_m">
<table>
<caption>Table 45: Main subsistence source cohort 1964-1973 by period, Men</caption>
<caption><strong>Table 45.</strong> Main subsistence source cohort 1964-1973 by period, Men</caption>
<tbody>
</tbody>
</table>
......@@ -24932,18 +24927,18 @@ Total (n=36,124)
<h2 data-number="3.2" id="working-hours-1"><span class="header-section-number">3.2</span> Working Hours</h2>
<div id="fig:ahours" class="subfigures">
<figure>
<img src="../results/figures/ahours_timeres_f.svg" id="fig:ahours_timeres_f" alt="a" /><figcaption aria-hidden="true">a</figcaption>
<img src="../results/figures/ahours_timeres_f.svg" id="fig:ahours_timeres_f" alt="(a) Women, by duration of stay" /><figcaption aria-hidden="true"><strong>(a)</strong> Women, by duration of stay</figcaption>
</figure>
<figure>
<img src="../results/figures/ahours_timeres_m.svg" id="fig:ahours_timeres_m" alt="b" /><figcaption aria-hidden="true">b</figcaption>
<img src="../results/figures/ahours_timeres_m.svg" id="fig:ahours_timeres_m" alt="(b) Men, by duration of stay" /><figcaption aria-hidden="true"><strong>(b)</strong> Men, by duration of stay</figcaption>
</figure>
<figure>
<img src="../results/figures/ahours_period_f.svg" id="fig:ahours_period_f" alt="c" /><figcaption aria-hidden="true">c</figcaption>
<img src="../results/figures/ahours_period_f.svg" id="fig:ahours_period_f" alt="(c) Women, by period" /><figcaption aria-hidden="true"><strong>(c)</strong> Women, by period</figcaption>
</figure>
<figure>
<img src="../results/figures/ahours_period_m.svg" id="fig:ahours_period_m" alt="d" /><figcaption aria-hidden="true">d</figcaption>
<img src="../results/figures/ahours_period_m.svg" id="fig:ahours_period_m" alt="(d) Men, by period" /><figcaption aria-hidden="true"><strong>(d)</strong> Men, by period</figcaption>
</figure>
<p>Figure 9: Weekly working hours by arrival cohort, gender, duration of stay and period.. a — Women, by duration of stay, b — Men, by duration of stay, c — Women, by period, d — Men, by period</p>
<p><strong>Figure 9.</strong> Weekly working hours by arrival cohort, gender, duration of stay and period.</p>
</div>
<p class="fignote">
Sample is restricted to western Germany, including Berlin . <br /> Source: Microcensus Scientific Use Files, DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.21242/12211.1976.00.00.3.1.0">10.21242/12211.1976.00.00.3.1.0</a> to <a href="https://doi.org/10.21242/12211.2015.00.00.3.1.0">10.21242/12211.2015.00.00.3.1.0</a>, own calculations.
......@@ -24951,7 +24946,7 @@ Sample is restricted to western Germany, including Berlin . <br /> Source: Micro
<div class="tabledetails">