Online Appendix: From “guestworkers” to EU migrants: A gendered view on the labor market integration of different arrival cohorts in Germany

Version 1.2.0 (2020-12-17)



1 Strategy


1.1 Setting

This paper draws on data from the Microcensus Scientific Use Files (DOI: 10.21242/12211.1976.00.00.3.1.0 to 10.21242/12211.2015.00.00.3.1.0) to provide a long-term overview of the labor market performance of different arrival cohorts of female and male migrants to Germany. Whereas there is a large body of research on the labor market outcomes of migrants to Germany, a more descriptive long-term and gender-specific overview is missing. We provide descriptive analyses for the employment rates, working hours, and occupational status levels of different arrival cohorts by gender, calendar year, and duration of stay. The data cover the time period 1976-2015.

To model labor market outcomes over time for first generation immigrants in Germany, we distinguish between arrival year cohorts. These correspond to the following periods:

Table 1. Arrival cohort periods
1964-1973 1974-1983 1984-1993 1994-2003 2004-2010

1.2 Indicators and Variables

We provide descriptive statistics (means) for the following labor market outcomes by arrival cohort, gender, and calendar year:

Table 2. Variable defintion.
Variable Definition
Employment Dummy, 1 for individuals who state to be self-employed, working family members, employees and workers in public or private sector, in vocational training; 0 for un- and non-employed
Working hours Actual weekly working hours of individual
Capped at 80h/week (values 80-95h/week are recoded as 80h/week, rest to missing)
ISEI-88 ISEI-88 score for occupation of individual in employment
Duration of stay Years of residence in Germany
Education Categorical, highest schooling or vocational degree:
ISCED 1-2 / ISCED 3-4 / ISCED 5-6

1.3 Sample

Table 3. Sample restrictions.
Characteristics Values
Residence Main
Age 25-54
Citizenship Foreign (age at immigration otherwise not available)
Years of residence Capped at 30y.
Age at immigration 18+
Sample Region West Germany (including East Berlin beginning in 1991)
Employed DV Employment: Yes/No
DV Working hours: Yes
DV ISEI-88: Yes

1.4 KldB to ISEI-88 conversion

Originally, occupations have been recorded according to the Klassifikation der Berufe (KldB) (Bundesagentur für Arbeit 2020) in the Microcensus. The KlbB classification is not directly translatable to ISEI-88 (Ganzeboom et al. 1992), but involves the intermediate step of converting to ISCO-88 COM (International Labor Organization 2020). Moreover, the KldB classification underwent several revisions over our analysis period that have to be translated to our base classification KldB92 (which offers the best overall feasability in the present context). In sum, we follow the conversion logic:

KldB92 (3-digit) ISCO-88 COM ISEI-88

This approach involves the following steps:


2 Descriptives


Source is the Microcensus 1976-2015, except for the cohort composition in Figure 1 which is based on municipality register data.

2.1 Cohort composition

Figure 1. Immigrant inflows to Germany by year and gender (lower panel). Citizenship composition of arrival cohorts by gender (upper panel).

Numbers include inflows to eastern Germany since 1991. Citizenship shares plotted for countries of origin with consistently available information for the full arrival period. For the Soviet Union, the Czech Republic, and Yugoslavia, both aggregated and disaggregated data are provided by the municipalities in some years. In these cases, we distributed the aggregated numbers among the constituting countries corresponding to their respective disaggregated shares.
Source: German municipality registers (Destatis 2020).

2.2 Selection

2.2.1 Cohort size by period

(a) Women, age 25-54
(b) Men, age 25-54
(c) Women, age 25+
(d) Men, age 25+

Figure 2. Cohort size development by period. Different age restrictions.

Sample is restricted to western Germany, including Berlin.
Source: Microcensus Scientific Use Files, DOI: 10.21242/12211.1976.00.00.3.1.0 to 10.21242/12211.2015.00.00.3.1.0, own calculations.

Table 4. Cohort size development by period, Women
Expand
Arrival cohort
German 1964-73 1974-83 1984-93 1994-03 2004-10 Total
n n n n n n n
1976 (n=79,893) 10,889,849 339,595 43,138 0 0 0 11,272,582
1978 (n=78,478) 10,646,222 355,941 70,555 0 0 0 11,072,717
1980 (n=81,002) 10,967,365 364,768 160,187 0 0 0 11,492,320
1982 (n=80,311) 10,810,513 331,310 217,007 0 0 0 11,358,829
1985 (n=81,771) 10,887,375 377,983 292,102 26,988 0 0 11,584,449
1987 (n=83,632) 11,151,930 341,207 290,499 79,645 0 0 11,863,281
1989 (n=76,529) 11,779,779 323,626 259,339 155,367 0 0 12,518,111
1991 (n=77,884) 11,462,802 279,615 223,527 226,415 0 0 12,192,359
1993 (n=77,973) 11,611,319 270,614 233,880 361,363 0 0 12,477,176
1995 (n=81,481) 12,125,949 258,468 209,854 446,800 74,250 0 13,115,322
1996 (n=80,677) 12,052,140 236,931 196,055 451,385 112,572 0 13,049,083
1997 (n=81,129) 12,152,266 199,091 171,634 441,810 159,977 0 13,124,779
1998 (n=80,866) 12,138,932 187,155 165,770 396,661 204,198 0 13,092,716
1999 (n=79,979) 12,068,128 153,442 159,434 364,538 235,787 0 12,981,330
2000 (n=78,346) 11,914,121 150,436 142,776 354,593 285,723 0 12,847,649
2001 (n=79,796) 12,159,607 114,978 130,246 331,844 327,694 0 13,064,369
2002 (n=79,569) 12,175,987 103,087 120,894 313,830 383,860 0 13,097,658
2003 (n=78,993) 12,075,372 83,536 120,675 318,390 442,728 0 13,040,701
2004 (n=77,473) 11,949,885 60,615 103,615 278,882 466,298 9,121 12,868,416
2005 (n=74,980) 12,212,376 52,978 117,648 318,873 574,825 83,695 13,360,396
2006 (n=79,229) 12,161,523 41,187 122,400 330,823 649,163 140,394 13,445,490
2007 (n=76,516) 12,087,582 22,779 97,110 322,128 635,943 212,953 13,378,493
2008 (n=76,339) 11,998,292 10,401 89,078 297,140 633,565 268,161 13,296,638
2009 (n=76,980) 11,919,926 3,555 77,086 285,862 622,075 326,671 13,235,174
2010 (n=76,512) 11,788,759 0 65,542 283,875 574,912 383,357 13,096,446
2011 (n=75,627) 11,754,473 0 47,427 278,689 558,084 436,377 13,075,050
2012 (n=73,843) 11,588,481 0 33,802 231,476 478,958 391,882 12,724,600
2013 (n=72,432) 11,417,444 0 28,061 218,711 467,522 415,912 12,547,650
2014 (n=71,415) 11,337,206 0 23,867 211,542 447,389 413,395 12,433,401
2015 (n=70,942) 11,225,438 0 15,015 208,109 421,361 399,033 12,268,956
Total (n=2,340,597) 350,511,040 4,663,298 4,028,225 7,535,740 8,756,885 3,480,952 378,976,140
Table 5. Cohort size development by period, Women (no upper age limit)
Expand
Arrival cohort
German 1964-73 1974-83 1984-93 1994-03 2004-10 Total
n n n n n n n
1976 (n=137,540) 19,048,486 349,548 44,567 0 0 0 19,442,600
1978 (n=137,279) 18,953,148 369,209 75,733 0 0 0 19,398,090
1980 (n=146,049) 20,196,900 382,054 171,329 0 0 0 20,750,283
1982 (n=145,338) 20,005,679 347,714 229,436 0 0 0 20,582,829
1985 (n=146,159) 19,964,972 406,642 304,317 28,988 0 0 20,704,918
1987 (n=149,349) 20,425,940 374,404 303,764 87,383 0 0 21,191,492
1989 (n=135,216) 21,212,346 370,290 277,420 166,521 0 0 22,026,578
1991 (n=134,625) 20,206,424 327,608 242,084 241,693 0 0 21,017,809
1993 (n=137,766) 20,939,779 337,428 254,842 384,900 0 0 21,916,948
1995 (n=144,852) 22,036,431 345,507 237,421 479,334 82,864 0 23,181,557
1996 (n=143,250) 21,870,243 329,439 226,357 488,742 127,403 0 23,042,185
1997 (n=144,301) 22,073,406 283,986 201,728 483,315 174,103 0 23,216,537
1998 (n=144,070) 22,089,317 283,117 196,778 428,963 224,456 0 23,222,630
1999 (n=143,244) 22,040,478 252,531 194,297 399,824 255,491 0 23,142,620
2000 (n=139,089) 21,563,206 249,848 180,067 386,183 311,982 0 22,691,286
2001 (n=141,701) 21,955,613 231,046 169,388 371,161 357,570 0 23,084,779
2002 (n=141,170) 21,961,645 223,036 166,430 354,824 418,839 0 23,124,774
2003 (n=141,152) 21,946,023 223,530 170,311 362,146 490,340 0 23,192,350
2004 (n=139,918) 21,927,980 193,805 161,995 325,242 513,537 9,842 23,132,400
2005 (n=141,402) 22,757,963 248,340 189,432 379,934 644,124 90,153 24,309,946
2006 (n=149,044) 22,823,889 275,366 210,041 398,303 721,004 148,079 24,576,681
2007 (n=145,742) 22,854,424 274,109 198,256 394,901 708,050 226,946 24,656,686
2008 (n=146,042) 22,839,562 257,408 198,924 371,352 710,725 286,558 24,664,529
2009 (n=148,172) 22,738,144 256,148 193,234 357,693 703,092 352,402 24,600,713
2010 (n=148,157) 22,702,843 236,188 191,600 364,349 654,882 417,551 24,567,414
2011 (n=147,552) 22,755,931 224,727 175,455 381,339 655,127 475,260 24,667,838
2012 (n=146,100) 22,662,078 200,424 160,954 317,461 555,007 426,705 24,322,630
2013 (n=144,573) 22,610,988 197,659 159,559 306,253 546,722 449,670 24,270,851
2014 (n=144,208) 22,595,430 190,749 160,062 308,556 538,035 448,799 24,241,632
2015 (n=144,645) 22,727,582 196,511 159,541 310,679 523,480 442,149 24,359,941
Total (n=4,297,705) 650,486,850 8,438,369 5,805,321 8,880,041 9,916,832 3,774,113 687,301,526
Table 6. Cohort size development by period, Men
Expand
Arrival cohort
German 1964-73 1974-83 1984-93 1994-03 2004-10 Total
n n n n n n n
1976 (n=78,000) 10,455,929 449,707 32,226 0 0 0 10,937,862
1978 (n=79,290) 10,575,640 483,538 67,733 0 0 0 11,126,911
1980 (n=81,682) 10,853,831 515,441 155,515 0 0 0 11,524,788
1982 (n=81,982) 10,855,741 458,015 217,456 0 0 0 11,531,212
1985 (n=82,633) 10,839,088 559,559 267,409 43,179 0 0 11,709,234
1987 (n=84,855) 11,182,543 514,864 259,270 90,583 0 0 12,047,260
1989 (n=76,681) 11,668,958 482,915 243,700 184,067 0 0 12,579,639
1991 (n=77,563) 11,371,584 403,119 202,465 247,727 0 0 12,224,896
1993 (n=77,786) 11,530,438 387,875 199,265 402,417 0 0 12,519,994
1995 (n=81,234) 12,106,977 327,901 188,714 468,310 84,589 0 13,176,491
1996 (n=80,526) 12,060,229 291,618 167,893 492,003 124,967 0 13,136,710
1997 (n=80,707) 12,148,129 238,982 153,165 459,155 163,268 0 13,162,699
1998 (n=80,127) 12,122,094 212,089 140,974 413,365 198,069 0 13,086,592
1999 (n=78,768) 11,987,458 174,495 131,420 385,110 235,569 0 12,914,052
2000 (n=76,804) 11,833,025 142,725 112,062 345,112 264,786 0 12,697,709
2001 (n=78,604) 12,111,762 123,027 113,540 331,985 303,854 0 12,984,168
2002 (n=77,965) 12,100,329 93,237 113,440 307,721 333,557 0 12,948,285
2003 (n=77,531) 12,027,856 74,341 101,365 310,751 398,615 0 12,912,928
2004 (n=75,028) 11,770,600 48,763 86,937 268,454 406,134 10,281 12,591,169
2005 (n=71,976) 12,135,515 29,589 95,857 304,443 494,084 80,236 13,139,724
2006 (n=76,436) 12,201,260 24,321 95,923 330,051 556,674 142,696 13,350,925
2007 (n=73,519) 12,028,748 11,815 94,504 318,522 528,044 182,066 13,163,700
2008 (n=73,512) 11,990,210 3,958 77,031 304,990 498,034 241,334 13,115,557
2009 (n=73,409) 11,871,520 1,919 73,762 269,698 471,963 289,853 12,978,714
2010 (n=73,256) 11,789,176 0 56,284 255,186 441,033 349,414 12,891,093
2011 (n=72,528) 11,771,697 0 45,256 262,543 425,065 394,797 12,899,358
2012 (n=71,303) 11,515,002 0 37,140 235,210 353,530 335,111 12,475,993
2013 (n=69,916) 11,410,951 0 28,668 222,291 361,969 338,116 12,361,996
2014 (n=68,988) 11,333,948 0 19,759 208,933 364,439 328,847 12,255,926
2015 (n=68,554) 11,237,463 0 15,440 188,544 332,533 339,140 12,113,120
Total (n=2,301,163) 348,887,700 6,053,813 3,594,172 7,650,352 7,340,777 3,031,892 376,558,704
Table 7. Cohort size development by period, Men (no upper age limit)
Expand
Arrival cohort
German 1964-73 1974-83 1984-93 1994-03 2004-10 Total
n n n n n n n
1976 (n=116,312) 15,848,203 461,850 33,369 0 0 0 16,343,421
1978 (n=117,547) 15,959,458 496,300 70,090 0 0 0 16,525,848
1980 (n=122,685) 16,647,708 533,441 162,492 0 0 0 17,343,640
1982 (n=123,178) 16,650,180 480,300 225,742 0 0 0 17,356,222
1985 (n=125,076) 16,807,154 602,402 278,309 45,464 0 0 17,733,329
1987 (n=128,705) 17,342,205 566,763 272,270 94,512 0 0 18,275,750
1989 (n=115,519) 17,912,039 553,390 259,418 192,790 0 0 18,917,637
1991 (n=117,658) 17,502,123 492,350 217,350 259,249 0 0 18,471,072
1993 (n=120,997) 18,218,102 502,936 217,296 419,149 0 0 19,357,484
1995 (n=128,820) 19,469,786 487,659 209,290 493,807 90,178 0 20,750,720
1996 (n=127,993) 19,422,386 472,339 191,188 520,562 136,132 0 20,742,607
1997 (n=129,590) 19,750,532 413,141 176,197 488,023 173,841 0 21,001,734
1998 (n=129,363) 19,788,828 401,046 167,506 437,412 215,156 0 21,009,949
1999 (n=128,217) 19,720,364 364,847 158,826 413,827 250,257 0 20,908,121
2000 (n=124,826) 19,379,834 358,078 137,780 373,375 285,312 0 20,534,379
2001 (n=127,752) 19,829,000 345,058 136,820 362,811 327,125 0 21,000,814
2002 (n=127,427) 19,901,616 315,435 145,381 337,283 357,501 0 21,057,215
2003 (n=127,718) 19,938,242 318,404 137,779 338,456 434,367 0 21,167,247
2004 (n=125,531) 19,799,692 287,143 129,508 300,090 442,368 11,002 20,969,803
2005 (n=125,648) 20,667,343 359,019 146,720 343,846 545,418 86,264 22,148,611
2006 (n=133,037) 20,816,806 383,017 163,103 384,554 618,924 153,082 22,519,486
2007 (n=129,970) 20,794,247 387,461 165,232 370,792 589,193 195,063 22,501,988
2008 (n=130,537) 20,853,597 347,415 151,318 367,557 562,638 257,549 22,540,074
2009 (n=131,715) 20,818,442 331,014 154,340 332,840 545,162 313,129 22,494,928
2010 (n=132,275) 20,860,023 322,223 147,297 327,569 509,081 383,444 22,549,638
2011 (n=131,749) 20,979,121 300,581 141,092 343,028 503,844 430,574 22,698,239
2012 (n=131,045) 20,696,146 257,748 139,006 312,373 415,790 367,213 22,188,277
2013 (n=129,812) 20,745,352 258,489 132,026 300,349 433,159 373,053 22,242,428
2014 (n=130,188) 20,835,687 253,890 127,743 298,791 438,939 359,210 22,314,261
2015 (n=130,674) 20,913,784 246,439 139,470 286,264 421,663 380,872 22,388,492
Total (n=3,801,564) 578,867,999 11,900,178 4,933,957 8,744,775 8,296,048 3,310,456 616,053,414


Why do we see an increase in cohort size for all arrival cohorts from 2004-2006 and for the first cohort from 1976-1985? The reason is non-response on the arrival year variable, which substantially varies over years:

Figure 3. Non-response on arrival year variable by year and gender.

Corresponds to analysis sample except for arrival year restrictions. Shares for persons with non-German citizenship who were born abroad.
Source: Microcensus Scientific Use Files, DOI: 10.21242/12211.1976.00.00.3.1.0 to 10.21242/12211.2015.00.00.3.1.0, own calculations.

Since 2005, the immigration year question is part of the mandatory questionnaire. The lower non-response rates mean overall higher observation numbers. Table 8 shows that the relative size of cohorts in percent increased to a similar extent at this cut-off. So, probably no selection on the cohort (selection on other characteristics still possible, of course). The changes for cohorts 1964-73 and 1994-2003 are due the age range of 25-54, shares are even closer across years without this restriction. @

test (import?)

Table 8. Cohort selective nonresponse test 2004-2006
Expand
Arrival cohort
1964-73 1974-83 1984-93 1994-03 Total
n % n % n % n % n %
2004 (n=8,143) 109,378 6.4 190,551 11.1 547,336 31.8 872,432 50.7 1,719,698 100.0
2005 (n=8,536) 82,567 4.2 213,505 10.7 623,316 31.3 1,068,909 53.8 1,988,297 100.0
2006 (n=9,773) 65,509 3.0 218,323 10.2 660,874 30.7 1,205,837 56.1 2,150,542 100.0
Total (n=26,452) 257,453 4.4 622,379 10.6 1,831,526 31.3 3,147,177 53.7 5,858,537 100.0

2.2.2 Cohort size by duration of stay

Generally, these plots are not really interpretable because many processes are at play that determine the population numbers. One issue is that persons who immigrated at age 18-23 show up in our analysis sample with a timelag due to the age restriction 25-54 (not a problem for the plots by period above). So, some initial gains in cohort size are due to this lag. Other gains certainly follow from the large variation in non-response rates on the arrival year (see above).

(a) Women, age 25-54
(b) Men, age 25-54
(c) Women, age 18-54
(d) Men, age 18-54
(e) Women, age 25+
(f) Men, age 25+

Figure 4. Cohort size development by duration of stay. Different age restrictions.

Sample is restricted to western Germany, including Berlin.
Source: Microcensus Scientific Use Files, DOI: 10.21242/12211.1976.00.00.3.1.0 to 10.21242/12211.2015.00.00.3.1.0, own calculations.

Table 9. Cohort size development by duration of stay, Women
Expand
Arrival cohort
1964-73 1974-83 1984-93 1994-03 2004-10 Total
n n n n n n
1 (n=5,517) 0 76,817 182,413 459,322 402,033 1,120,586
2 (n=5,987) 0 105,383 195,204 486,687 414,694 1,201,970
3 (n=6,763) 41,680 76,925 267,998 524,986 433,342 1,344,932
4 (n=7,222) 40,946 114,807 293,842 561,296 421,168 1,432,060
5 (n=8,034) 92,519 102,616 327,230 607,320 440,016 1,569,701
6 (n=8,212) 101,183 144,375 346,313 630,451 374,472 1,596,794
7 (n=8,264) 165,797 122,381 360,071 644,676 290,072 1,582,996
8 (n=7,975) 154,064 143,641 363,144 636,208 225,828 1,522,885
9 (n=7,067) 163,549 101,825 352,473 573,916 158,010 1,349,773
10 (n=7,328) 165,960 139,371 367,691 597,540 110,143 1,380,705
11 (n=6,356) 116,587 134,172 353,619 550,627 52,338 1,207,344
12 (n=6,280) 186,485 113,337 341,436 525,908 0 1,167,165
13 (n=5,554) 136,005 140,481 332,371 438,154 0 1,047,011
14 (n=5,099) 157,962 118,701 319,663 365,666 0 961,992
15 (n=4,894) 154,120 144,798 318,004 301,373 0 918,295
16 (n=4,621) 189,405 132,633 319,334 232,128 0 873,500
17 (n=4,141) 149,093 156,074 301,352 179,515 0 786,034
18 (n=3,728) 166,788 126,713 291,937 127,391 0 712,828
19 (n=3,407) 135,808 146,676 290,892 91,687 0 665,063
20 (n=3,555) 174,738 154,616 300,208 64,614 0 694,176
21 (n=3,037) 138,933 163,810 267,496 24,556 0 594,795
22 (n=2,754) 159,489 146,912 239,206 0 0 545,607
23 (n=2,646) 177,296 136,695 219,521 0 0 533,512
24 (n=2,257) 166,142 129,495 164,321 0 0 459,959
25 (n=2,220) 196,375 129,632 125,740 0 0 451,748
26 (n=1,952) 192,145 122,890 85,887 0 0 400,922
27 (n=1,819) 196,456 109,475 63,666 0 0 369,596
28 (n=1,548) 164,779 111,105 42,447 0 0 318,330
29 (n=1,369) 155,466 102,570 25,266 0 0 283,302
30 (n=1,287) 154,998 93,491 17,199 0 0 265,688
Total (n=140,893) 4,194,769 3,742,415 7,475,946 8,624,021 3,322,116 27,359,268
Table 10. Cohort size development by duration of stay, Women (age 18-54)
Expand
Arrival cohort
1964-73 1974-83 1984-93 1994-03 2004-10 Total
n n n n n n
1 (n=8,309) 0 116,817 281,984 707,647 574,234 1,680,682
2 (n=8,171) 0 155,264 279,143 669,506 526,474 1,630,388
3 (n=8,606) 59,389 105,163 359,449 665,189 516,331 1,705,522
4 (n=8,614) 52,280 142,664 359,082 667,288 482,520 1,703,834
5 (n=9,002) 106,686 120,587 372,690 675,166 478,606 1,753,736
6 (n=8,681) 111,226 153,507 373,839 660,082 390,089 1,688,743
7 (n=8,264) 165,797 122,381 360,071 644,676 290,072 1,582,996
8 (n=7,975) 154,064 143,641 363,144 636,208 225,828 1,522,885
9 (n=7,067) 163,549 101,825 352,473 573,916 158,010 1,349,773
10 (n=7,328) 165,960 139,371 367,691 597,540 110,143 1,380,705
11 (n=6,356) 116,587 134,172 353,619 550,627 52,338 1,207,344
12 (n=6,280) 186,485 113,337 341,436 525,908 0 1,167,165
13 (n=5,554) 136,005 140,481 332,371 438,154 0 1,047,011
14 (n=5,099) 157,962 118,701 319,663 365,666 0 961,992
15 (n=4,894) 154,120 144,798 318,004 301,373 0 918,295
16 (n=4,621) 189,405 132,633 319,334 232,128 0 873,500
17 (n=4,141) 149,093 156,074 301,352 179,515 0 786,034
18 (n=3,728) 166,788 126,713 291,937 127,391 0 712,828
19 (n=3,407) 135,808 146,676 290,892 91,687 0 665,063
20 (n=3,555) 174,738 154,616 300,208 64,614 0 694,176
21 (n=3,037) 138,933 163,810 267,496 24,556 0 594,795
22 (n=2,754) 159,489 146,912 239,206 0 0 545,607
23 (n=2,646) 177,296 136,695 219,521 0 0 533,512
24 (n=2,257) 166,142 129,495 164,321 0 0 459,959
25 (n=2,220) 196,375 129,632 125,740 0 0 451,748
26 (n=1,952) 192,145 122,890 85,887 0 0 400,922
27 (n=1,819) 196,456 109,475 63,666 0 0 369,596
28 (n=1,548) 164,779 111,105 42,447 0 0 318,330
29 (n=1,369) 155,466 102,570 25,266 0 0 283,302
30 (n=1,287) 154,998 93,491 17,199 0 0 265,688
Total (n=150,541) 4,248,021 3,915,495 7,889,135 9,398,837 3,804,645 29,256,133
Table 11. Cohort size development by duration of stay, Women (no upper age limit)
Expand
Arrival cohort
1964-73 1974-83 1984-93 1994-03 2004-10 Total
n n n n n n
1 (n=5,968) 0 81,996 198,566 502,527 428,020 1,211,109
2 (n=6,439) 0 112,026 209,155 528,046 444,445 1,293,672
3 (n=7,308) 42,632 82,211 287,648 576,935 468,232 1,457,658
4 (n=7,802) 41,375 122,950 317,771 615,034 455,085 1,552,214
5 (n=8,651) 95,662 108,902 351,556 661,374 479,669 1,697,163
6 (n=8,831) 104,040 151,623 370,849 691,932 407,107 1,725,551
7 (n=8,892) 169,208 127,726 387,526 711,394 316,765 1,712,619
8 (n=8,658) 158,778 151,708 397,515 709,450 248,276 1,665,728
9 (n=7,669) 168,216 107,548 381,332 646,028 172,739 1,475,864
10 (n=8,051) 173,437 147,269 403,909 680,311 125,801 1,530,727
11 (n=7,022) 121,301 141,319 388,110 634,237 59,171 1,344,139
12 (n=6,949) 193,628 123,574 382,681 604,442 0 1,304,325
13 (n=6,217) 142,434 151,110 373,537 514,852 0 1,181,933
14 (n=5,788) 166,763 131,277 367,100 436,280 0 1,101,420
15 (n=5,625) 166,334 161,640 374,204 364,294 0 1,066,472
16 (n=5,336) 205,341 150,755 375,587 286,096 0 1,017,778
17 (n=4,823) 162,183 178,034 362,664 221,478 0 924,359
18 (n=4,397) 184,911 149,862 355,895 156,415 0 847,083
19 (n=4,061) 150,996 169,430 362,169 116,321 0 798,915
20 (n=4,418) 201,345 189,509 391,601 83,849 0 866,304
21 (n=3,776) 161,856 199,614 350,518 30,823 0 742,811
22 (n=3,473) 184,244 184,435 323,673 0 0 692,353
23 (n=3,405) 213,555 173,684 299,507 0 0 686,747
24 (n=2,980) 207,421 172,404 226,730 0 0 606,555
25 (n=3,076) 248,774 186,671 189,024 0 0 624,469
26 (n=2,810) 255,010 186,013 133,786 0 0 574,809
27 (n=2,666) 271,149 170,133 99,867 0 0 541,148
28 (n=2,400) 243,628 179,689 69,111 0 0 492,429
29 (n=2,262) 242,766 179,093 45,075 0 0 466,934
30 (n=2,430) 268,387 201,940 33,117 0 0 503,444
Total (n=162,183) 4,945,375 4,574,145 8,809,784 9,772,118 3,605,310 31,706,732
Table 12. Cohort size development by duration of stay, Men
Expand
Arrival cohort
1964-73 1974-83 1984-93 1994-03 2004-10 Total
n n n n n n
1 (n=5,475) 0 76,762 219,341 479,467 395,821 1,171,390
2 (n=5,402) 0 105,321 222,294 428,863 384,328 1,140,808
3 (n=6,186) 45,764 81,316 298,978 470,325 398,940 1,295,323
4 (n=6,421) 50,948 114,552 324,782 491,954 368,693 1,350,930
5 (n=7,218) 111,500 109,233 370,980 502,758 388,054 1,482,526
6 (n=7,077) 130,388 145,770 361,426 503,747 285,626 1,426,956
7 (n=7,444) 211,358 119,694 384,637 521,116 235,805 1,472,610
8 (n=7,033) 192,620 136,994 376,203 525,514 170,371 1,401,703
9 (n=6,437) 224,487 108,817 340,503 468,698 114,669 1,257,174
10 (n=6,562) 230,248 122,879 374,577 477,568 83,246 1,288,517
11 (n=5,593) 171,216 117,473 344,009 423,761 37,924 1,094,382
12 (n=5,888) 265,144 96,051 348,329 416,908 0 1,126,432
13 (n=5,014) 179,371 128,702 330,212 340,141 0 978,426
14 (n=4,943) 238,356 103,308 312,756 292,077 0 946,496
15 (n=4,967) 235,931 130,293 329,571 253,890 0 949,684
16 (n=4,647) 279,072 119,875 311,003 178,700 0 888,650
17 (n=4,209) 231,435 133,493 296,038 145,852 0 806,819
18 (n=3,866) 237,902 122,078 288,667 107,203 0 755,851
19 (n=3,327) 197,476 118,029 264,087 83,037 0 662,630
20 (n=3,627) 246,925 141,826 287,797 56,143 0 732,691
21 (n=3,135) 222,867 122,884 251,981 22,565 0 620,297
22 (n=2,890) 210,545 124,993 248,181 0 0 583,719
23 (n=2,816) 251,016 115,345 206,518 0 0 572,878
24 (n=2,329) 226,235 109,798 154,075 0 0 490,108
25 (n=2,331) 259,169 111,084 117,085 0 0 487,338
26 (n=1,993) 239,569 102,410 76,434 0 0 418,413
27 (n=1,870) 241,456 98,428 54,259 0 0 394,144
28 (n=1,560) 208,697 88,237 32,866 0 0 329,801
29 (n=1,276) 168,198 80,725 19,764 0 0 268,688
30 (n=1,222) 164,266 77,698 13,824 0 0 255,788
Total (n=132,758) 5,672,160 3,364,070 7,561,177 7,190,288 2,863,477 26,651,171
Table 13. Cohort size development by duration of stay, Men (age 18-54)
Expand
Arrival cohort
1964-73 1974-83 1984-93 1994-03 2004-10 Total
n n n n n n
1 (n=7,386) 0 115,476 297,854 656,284 502,309 1,571,924
2 (n=6,904) 0 143,750 288,620 551,854 473,406 1,457,631
3 (n=7,275) 55,907 100,744 360,921 557,153 448,461 1,523,186
4 (n=7,237) 55,662 135,552 370,022 550,446 407,717 1,519,398
5 (n=7,767) 119,595 120,948 405,068 539,703 410,169 1,595,483
6 (n=7,323) 136,388 152,540 374,755 516,784 294,822 1,475,288
7 (n=7,444) 211,358 119,694 384,637 521,116 235,805 1,472,610
8 (n=7,033) 192,620 136,994 376,203 525,514 170,371 1,401,703
9 (n=6,437) 224,487 108,817 340,503 468,698 114,669 1,257,174
10 (n=6,562) 230,248 122,879 374,577 477,568 83,246 1,288,517
11 (n=5,593) 171,216 117,473 344,009 423,761 37,924 1,094,382
12 (n=5,888) 265,144 96,051 348,329 416,908 0 1,126,432
13 (n=5,014) 179,371 128,702 330,212 340,141 0 978,426
14 (n=4,943) 238,356 103,308 312,756 292,077 0 946,496
15 (n=4,967) 235,931 130,293 329,571 253,890 0 949,684
16 (n=4,647) 279,072 119,875 311,003 178,700 0 888,650
17 (n=4,209) 231,435 133,493 296,038 145,852 0 806,819
18 (n=3,866) 237,902 122,078 288,667 107,203 0 755,851
19 (n=3,327) 197,476 118,029 264,087 83,037 0 662,630
20 (n=3,627) 246,925 141,826 287,797 56,143 0 732,691
21 (n=3,135) 222,867 122,884 251,981 22,565 0 620,297
22 (n=2,890) 210,545 124,993 248,181 0 0 583,719
23 (n=2,816) 251,016 115,345 206,518 0 0 572,878
24 (n=2,329) 226,235 109,798 154,075 0 0 490,108
25 (n=2,331) 259,169 111,084 117,085 0 0 487,338
26 (n=1,993) 239,569 102,410 76,434 0 0 418,413
27 (n=1,870) 241,456 98,428 54,259 0 0 394,144
28 (n=1,560) 208,697 88,237 32,866 0 0 329,801
29 (n=1,276) 168,198 80,725 19,764 0 0 268,688
30 (n=1,222) 164,266 77,698 13,824 0 0 255,788
Total (n=138,871) 5,701,112 3,500,126 7,860,615 7,685,397 3,178,898 27,926,149
Table 14. Cohort size development by duration of stay, Men (no upper age limit)
Expand
Arrival cohort
1964-73 1974-83 1984-93 1994-03 2004-10 Total
n n n n n n
1 (n=5,841) 0 80,976 230,101 518,293 419,837 1,249,207
2 (n=5,792) 0 109,250 234,856 468,241 415,249 1,227,596
3 (n=6,583) 45,907 84,858 311,720 507,994 432,709 1,383,189
4 (n=6,831) 51,662 118,814 341,929 529,198 400,151 1,441,753
5 (n=7,642) 113,071 113,376 387,531 539,900 420,982 1,574,862
6 (n=7,544) 133,102 151,239 378,395 552,416 318,319 1,533,470
7 (n=7,966) 216,929 124,137 406,588 576,773 263,454 1,587,881
8 (n=7,555) 197,335 143,539 400,118 583,039 191,316 1,515,346
9 (n=6,946) 229,058 115,482 363,563 530,055 130,163 1,368,322
10 (n=7,161) 238,819 130,809 404,575 547,822 96,405 1,418,430
11 (n=6,085) 177,977 123,934 369,555 485,252 42,670 1,199,388
12 (n=6,434) 275,001 104,204 375,245 488,679 0 1,243,129
13 (n=5,527) 187,085 136,313 360,830 400,319 0 1,084,547
14 (n=5,474) 247,785 113,224 345,203 352,379 0 1,058,591
15 (n=5,520) 249,288 143,335 365,694 307,488 0 1,065,805
16 (n=5,225) 299,455 132,968 354,676 219,597 0 1,006,695
17 (n=4,778) 248,575 148,004 349,141 182,095 0 927,815
18 (n=4,471) 259,573 139,974 342,435 139,505 0 881,487
19 (n=3,901) 221,872 135,215 322,983 102,736 0 782,806
20 (n=4,386) 288,317 169,703 357,348 74,939 0 890,307
21 (n=3,838) 263,264 147,797 320,635 30,351 0 762,047
22 (n=3,602) 257,690 152,733 322,129 0 0 732,552
23 (n=3,593) 316,643 144,170 274,175 0 0 734,988
24 (n=3,066) 297,023 138,148 214,394 0 0 649,565
25 (n=3,279) 365,966 150,346 175,378 0 0 691,690
26 (n=2,983) 360,178 149,420 122,828 0 0 632,426
27 (n=2,917) 383,492 146,991 86,711 0 0 617,195
28 (n=2,644) 361,086 146,987 56,339 0 0 564,412
29 (n=2,414) 337,903 136,772 41,019 0 0 515,694
30 (n=2,797) 393,836 173,819 29,274 0 0 596,929
Total (n=152,795) 7,017,891 4,006,539 8,645,370 8,137,070 3,131,254 30,938,125

2.2.3 Education by duration of stay

Regarding the presumed higher remigration rates for skilled individuals, we observe higher average levels of education for migrants with a shorter duration of stay compared to migrants with a longer duration of stay (see Tables 16, 20). We find the largest differences within the first years of residence. For example, consider migrant women from arrival cohort 1984-1993. Given a duration of stay between 0 and 3 years, 25.4 percent of these women had some sort of tertiary education. Yet, for a duration of stay of 7-9 years, the share of women with tertiary education was only 18.3 percent. We find similar patterns across cohorts and stronger patterns for men than women, matching our results for occupational status (see Figures 11a, 11b). Only a minor part of these patterns is explained by selectivity in arrival age (see Tables 15, 19, Figures 12c, 12d). Thus, on average, highly educated (labor) migrants seem to stay for rather short durations.

Table 15. Educational levels (ISCED-97) by cohort and arrival age groups, Women (duration of stay 1-6)
Expand
Arrival cohort
1964-73 1974-83 1984-93 1994-03 2004-10 Total
% % % % % %
Excluded by age restriction 25-54
0-2 (n=4,979) 72.6 62.5 54.6 41.4 34.9 45.1
3-4 (n=3,121) 23.6 26.1 31.9 29.7 25.3 28.5
5-6 (n=2,585) 3.8 11.4 13.5 28.9 39.8 26.4
Total (n=10,685) 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Included by age restriction 25-54
0-2 (n=13,091) 73.6 59.1 44.3 35.9 28.0 37.8
3-4 (n=10,492) 20.9 23.4 32.0 33.3 31.6 31.4
5-6 (n=9,946) 5.5 17.5 23.7 30.8 40.4 30.8
Total (n=33,529) 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Table 16. Educational levels (ISCED-97) by cohort and duration of stay, Women
Expand
Arrival cohort
1964-1973 1974-1983 1984-1993 1994-2003 2004-2010 Total
% % % % %
ISCED, dur. of stay: 0-3y.
0-2 (n=6,103) 58.7 42.3 33.8 26.2 33.9
3-4 (n=5,484) 23.3 32.3 32.8 30.3 31.3
5-6 (n=5,846) 18.0 25.4 33.5 43.5 34.7
Total (n=17,433) 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
ISCED, dur. of stay: 3-6y.
0-2 (n=8,163) 58.6 47.3 38.2 28.5 40.2
3-4 (n=6,398) 24.4 32.3 33.2 33.0 32.1
5-6 (n=5,392) 17.0 20.4 28.6 38.5 27.7
Total (n=19,953) 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
ISCED, dur. of stay: 6-9y.
0-2 (n=7,566) 64.3 50.2 38.6 45.3
3-4 (n=5,222) 23.0 31.5 33.7 31.8
5-6 (n=3,671) 12.7 18.3 27.7 22.9
Total (n=16,459) 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
ISCED, dur. of stay: 9-12y.
0-2 (n=8,430) 70.5 63.6 51.6 41.0 48.7
3-4 (n=5,343) 24.0 23.6 31.9 33.4 31.2
5-6 (n=3,361) 5.6 12.8 16.5 25.6 20.1
Total (n=17,134) 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
ISCED, dur. of stay: 12-15y.
0-2 (n=6,054) 72.5 62.5 53.6 60.2
3-4 (n=2,674) 21.6 25.6 31.1 27.5
5-6 (n=1,175) 5.9 12.0 15.4 12.3
Total (n=9,903) 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
ISCED, dur. of stay: 15-18y.
0-2 (n=5,947) 71.9 62.0 54.8 61.1
3-4 (n=2,629) 22.7 26.6 30.7 27.6
5-6 (n=1,074) 5.4 11.4 14.5 11.3
Total (n=9,650) 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
ISCED, dur. of stay: 18-21y.
0-2 (n=5,464) 72.7 62.0 53.9 60.8
3-4 (n=2,538) 21.9 27.4 31.0 27.8
5-6 (n=1,051) 5.3 10.6 15.0 11.4
Total (n=9,053) 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Table 17. Educational levels (ISCED-97) by cohort and duration of stay, Women (age 18-54)
Expand
Arrival cohort
1964-1973 1974-1983 1984-1993 1994-2003 2004-2010 Total
% % % % %
ISCED, dur. of stay: 0-3y.
0-2 (n=8,891) 60.2 45.1 35.5 28.1 36.2
3-4 (n=7,395) 24.0 32.7 32.0 29.0 30.7
5-6 (n=7,561) 15.8 22.3 32.5 43.0 33.2
Total (n=23,847) 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
ISCED, dur. of stay: 3-6y.
0-2 (n=9,511) 59.3 48.9 39.4 29.9 41.6
3-4 (n=7,106) 24.6 32.0 32.5 32.4 31.6
5-6 (n=5,843) 16.1 19.0 28.1 37.6 26.8
Total (n=22,460) 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
ISCED, dur. of stay: 6-9y.
0-2 (n=7,566) 64.3 50.2 38.6 45.3
3-4 (n=5,222) 23.0 31.5 33.7 31.8
5-6 (n=3,671) 12.7 18.3 27.7 22.9
Total (n=16,459) 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
ISCED, dur. of stay: 9-12y.
0-2 (n=8,430) 70.5 63.6 51.6 41.0 48.7
3-4 (n=5,343) 24.0 23.6 31.9 33.4 31.2
5-6 (n=3,361) 5.6 12.8 16.5 25.6 20.1
Total (n=17,134) 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
ISCED, dur. of stay: 12-15y.
0-2 (n=6,054) 72.5 62.5 53.6 60.2
3-4 (n=2,674) 21.6 25.6 31.1 27.5
5-6 (n=1,175) 5.9 12.0 15.4 12.3
Total (n=9,903) 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
ISCED, dur. of stay: 15-18y.
0-2 (n=5,947) 71.9 62.0 54.8 61.1
3-4 (n=2,629) 22.7 26.6 30.7 27.6
5-6 (n=1,074) 5.4 11.4 14.5 11.3
Total (n=9,650) 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
ISCED, dur. of stay: 18-21y.
0-2 (n=5,464) 72.7 62.0 53.9 60.8
3-4 (n=2,538) 21.9 27.4 31.0 27.8
5-6 (n=1,051) 5.3 10.6 15.0 11.4
Total (n=9,053) 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Table 18. Educational levels (ISCED-97) by cohort and duration of stay, Women (no upper age limit)
Expand
Arrival cohort
1964-1973 1974-1983 1984-1993 1994-2003 2004-2010 Total
% % % % %
ISCED, dur. of stay: 0-3y.
0-2 (n=6,773) 58.6 44.0 34.7 27.0 34.9
3-4 (n=5,864) 23.8 31.5 32.1 30.4 31.0
5-6 (n=6,200) 17.6 24.5 33.2 42.6 34.1
Total (n=18,837) 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
ISCED, dur. of stay: 3-6y.
0-2 (n=8,954) 58.6 48.7 38.4 30.0 40.8
3-4 (n=6,810) 24.8 31.2 32.4 32.8 31.6
5-6 (n=5,797) 16.6 20.0 29.2 37.2 27.6
Total (n=21,561) 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
ISCED, dur. of stay: 6-9y.
0-2 (n=8,313) 64.5 51.7 38.7 45.6
3-4 (n=5,577) 22.8 30.6 32.8 31.0
5-6 (n=4,067) 12.6 17.8 28.5 23.3
Total (n=17,957) 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
ISCED, dur. of stay: 9-12y.
0-2 (n=9,444) 70.4 64.6 53.5 41.4 49.3
3-4 (n=5,780) 24.1 23.0 30.4 32.5 30.3
5-6 (n=3,769) 5.6 12.3 16.1 26.2 20.3
Total (n=18,993) 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
ISCED, dur. of stay: 12-15y.
0-2 (n=6,810) 73.0 63.8 55.5 61.4
3-4 (n=2,864) 21.3 24.6 29.5 26.5
5-6 (n=1,283) 5.8 11.6 15.0 12.1
Total (n=10,957) 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
ISCED, dur. of stay: 15-18y.
0-2 (n=6,968) 72.3 64.1 56.8 62.5
3-4 (n=2,886) 22.4 24.9 28.8 26.2
5-6 (n=1,231) 5.3 11.0 14.4 11.3
Total (n=11,085) 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
ISCED, dur. of stay: 18-21y.
0-2 (n=6,880) 73.6 65.0 56.3 62.6
3-4 (n=2,886) 21.3 25.1 28.4 25.9
5-6 (n=1,285) 5.1 9.9 15.3 11.5
Total (n=11,051) 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Table 19. Educational levels (ISCED-97) by cohort and arrival age groups, Men (duration of stay 1-6)
Expand
Arrival cohort
1964-73 1974-83 1984-93 1994-03 2004-10 Total
% % % % % %
Excluded by age restriction 25-54
0-2 (n=2,527) 45.7 49.8 43.4 33.0 22.0 34.6
3-4 (n=2,147) 42.9 30.9 37.9 30.1 24.1 30.7
5-6 (n=2,141) 11.3 19.3 18.7 36.9 53.9 34.8
Total (n=6,815) 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Included by age restriction 25-54
0-2 (n=9,663) 59.0 39.0 31.2 28.0 23.5 29.4
3-4 (n=11,042) 30.9 29.7 38.7 35.3 35.3 35.4
5-6 (n=10,490) 10.1 31.3 30.2 36.8 41.2 35.2
Total (n=31,195) 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Table 20. Educational levels (ISCED-97) by cohort and duration of stay, Men
Expand
Arrival cohort
1964-1973 1974-1983 1984-1993 1994-2003 2004-2010 Total
% % % % %
ISCED, dur. of stay: 0-3y.
0-2 (n=4,541) 41.6 32.0 26.1 21.7 26.7
3-4 (n=5,606) 30.1 35.9 35.3 32.5 34.2
5-6 (n=6,054) 28.3 32.1 38.6 45.8 39.1
Total (n=16,201) 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
ISCED, dur. of stay: 3-6y.
0-2 (n=5,729) 38.4 33.7 32.1 26.0 31.9
3-4 (n=6,482) 34.4 42.0 34.0 37.2 37.0
5-6 (n=5,157) 27.2 24.2 33.9 36.8 31.1
Total (n=17,368) 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
ISCED, dur. of stay: 6-9y.
0-2 (n=5,271) 39.6 38.3 35.3 36.9
3-4 (n=5,360) 37.1 39.8 36.1 37.6
5-6 (n=3,463) 23.2 22.0 28.6 25.5
Total (n=14,094) 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
ISCED, dur. of stay: 9-12y.
0-2 (n=5,771) 53.5 40.2 36.8 36.3 38.4
3-4 (n=5,884) 37.5 38.0 43.4 38.9 40.3
5-6 (n=3,002) 9.0 21.8 19.7 24.9 21.3
Total (n=14,657) 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
ISCED, dur. of stay: 12-15y.
0-2 (n=4,954) 54.4 38.4 39.6 44.3
3-4 (n=4,262) 36.5 39.5 42.6 40.0
5-6 (n=1,603) 9.1 22.1 17.8 15.7
Total (n=10,819) 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
ISCED, dur. of stay: 15-18y.
0-2 (n=5,063) 55.2 39.8 41.2 46.1
3-4 (n=4,209) 37.3 41.6 41.4 39.9
5-6 (n=1,387) 7.5 18.5 17.3 13.9
Total (n=10,659) 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
ISCED, dur. of stay: 18-21y.
0-2 (n=4,383) 55.1 40.7 42.5 46.7
3-4 (n=3,729) 37.0 41.5 42.5 40.3
5-6 (n=1,189) 7.9 17.8 15.0 13.0
Total (n=9,301) 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Table 21. Educational levels (ISCED-97) by cohort and duration of stay, Men (age 18-54)
Expand
Arrival cohort
1964-1973 1974-1983 1984-1993 1994-2003 2004-2010 Total
% % % % %
ISCED, dur. of stay: 0-3y.
0-2 (n=6,001) 42.6 34.4 27.5 21.8 28.0
3-4 (n=6,873) 31.2 36.1 34.0 30.7 33.2
5-6 (n=7,487) 26.1 29.5 38.5 47.6 38.8
Total (n=20,361) 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
ISCED, dur. of stay: 3-6y.
0-2 (n=6,330) 40.0 34.6 32.4 25.8 32.5
3-4 (n=6,952) 33.5 41.8 33.7 36.9 36.7
5-6 (n=5,528) 26.4 23.6 33.9 37.3 30.9
Total (n=18,810) 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
ISCED, dur. of stay: 6-9y.
0-2 (n=5,271) 39.6 38.3 35.3 36.9
3-4 (n=5,360) 37.1 39.8 36.1 37.6
5-6 (n=3,463) 23.2 22.0 28.6 25.5
Total (n=14,094) 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
ISCED, dur. of stay: 9-12y.
0-2 (n=5,771) 53.5 40.2 36.8 36.3 38.4
3-4 (n=5,884) 37.5 38.0 43.4 38.9 40.3
5-6 (n=3,002) 9.0 21.8 19.7 24.9 21.3
Total (n=14,657) 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
ISCED, dur. of stay: 12-15y.
0-2 (n=4,954) 54.4 38.4 39.6 44.3
3-4 (n=4,262) 36.5 39.5 42.6 40.0
5-6 (n=1,603) 9.1 22.1 17.8 15.7
Total (n=10,819) 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
ISCED, dur. of stay: 15-18y.
0-2 (n=5,063) 55.2 39.8 41.2 46.1
3-4 (n=4,209) 37.3 41.6 41.4 39.9
5-6 (n=1,387) 7.5 18.5 17.3 13.9
Total (n=10,659) 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
ISCED, dur. of stay: 18-21y.
0-2 (n=4,383) 55.1 40.7 42.5 46.7
3-4 (n=3,729) 37.0 41.5 42.5 40.3
5-6 (n=1,189) 7.9 17.8 15.0 13.0
Total (n=9,301) 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Table 22. Educational levels (ISCED-97) by cohort and duration of stay, Men (no upper age limit)
Expand
Arrival cohort
1964-1973 1974-1983 1984-1993 1994-2003 2004-2010 Total
% % % % %
ISCED, dur. of stay: 0-3y.
0-2 (n=4,844) 40.9 32.2 26.3 21.5 26.7
3-4 (n=5,961) 30.6 35.7 34.9 32.5 34.0
5-6 (n=6,518) 28.5 32.1 38.8 45.9 39.3
Total (n=17,323) 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
ISCED, dur. of stay: 3-6y.
0-2 (n=6,073) 38.3 34.1 31.7 25.8 31.8
3-4 (n=6,812) 34.3 41.3 33.7 37.1 36.6
5-6 (n=5,605) 27.5 24.6 34.6 37.1 31.6
Total (n=18,490) 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
ISCED, dur. of stay: 6-9y.
0-2 (n=5,623) 39.5 38.6 34.2 36.4
3-4 (n=5,680) 36.8 38.9 35.3 36.8
5-6 (n=3,944) 23.7 22.4 30.5 26.8
Total (n=15,247) 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
ISCED, dur. of stay: 9-12y.
0-2 (n=6,306) 53.4 40.3 37.1 35.9 38.3
3-4 (n=6,298) 37.3 37.5 42.6 37.2 39.1
5-6 (n=3,499) 9.3 22.1 20.3 26.9 22.6
Total (n=16,103) 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
ISCED, dur. of stay: 12-15y.
0-2 (n=5,334) 54.4 39.3 40.0 44.4
3-4 (n=4,498) 36.4 38.2 41.4 39.2
5-6 (n=1,787) 9.2 22.5 18.6 16.3
Total (n=11,619) 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
ISCED, dur. of stay: 15-18y.
0-2 (n=5,658) 55.8 40.4 41.1 46.2
3-4 (n=4,556) 36.1 40.4 39.8 38.6
5-6 (n=1,687) 8.0 19.2 19.1 15.2
Total (n=11,901) 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
ISCED, dur. of stay: 18-21y.
0-2 (n=5,298) 56.5 41.3 42.3 47.0
3-4 (n=4,265) 35.6 40.4 39.9 38.5
5-6 (n=1,558) 7.8 18.3 17.8 14.4
Total (n=11,121) 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

2.2.4 Education by naturalization status

Note: Unrestricted in terms of upper age bound.

We find that average educational levels of immigrant women and men are lower for longer durations of stay, but the decrease is much less pronounced than the one over the first years (see Tables 16, 20). A possible explanation of this decline is again selective outmigration, but also selective naturalization might play a larger role, given that long durations of residence are required for migrants to naturalize in Germany (currently: 8 years). As we cannot follow the same individuals over time in the Microcensus, there is no way to assess the magnitude of both possible processes. However, in recent waves of the Microcensus information on naturalization is available. Based on the years 2007-2015, we compared the educational levels of migrants who naturalized and those who did not (without upper age limit, see Tables 23, 24). Especially regarding the earlier cohorts, naturalized migrant women and men seem to be much better educated (naturalization rates being fairly even between genders). Consequently, if more and more skilled migrants naturalize with longer durations of stay, these drop out of our sample, leading to an underestimation of occupational mobility of arrival cohorts.

Table 23. ISCED-97 composition by arrival cohort and naturalization, Women, 2007-2015 (no upper age limit)
Expand
Arrival cohort
1964-73 1974-83 1984-93 1994-03 2004-10 Total N
% % % % % %
ISCED-97, non-naturalized immigrant
0-2 69.5 65.1 55.6 40.2 30.2 47.2 37,139
3-4 24.8 23.7 29.7 32.7 32.4 30.1 23,786
5-6 5.7 11.2 14.7 27.1 37.5 22.6 17,522
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 78,447
N 10,119 8,068 15,429 27,736 17,095 78,447
ISCED-97, naturalized immigrant
0-2 45.3 34.9 32.0 34.1 33.7 33.8 9,508
3-4 35.8 45.6 50.5 46.9 46.4 47.8 13,367
5-6 18.9 19.6 17.5 19.0 20.0 18.4 5,140
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 28,015
N 1,432 3,000 12,572 10,143 868 28,015
ISCED-97, naturalized/recognized Ethnic German
0-2 43.0 36.6 32.5 31.6 29.7 33.3 12,917
3-4 40.8 42.4 47.8 43.7 39.3 44.7 17,275
5-6 16.2 21.1 19.7 24.7 30.9 22.0 8,495
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 38,687
N 3,099 4,555 15,279 13,834 1,920 38,687
Table 24. ISCED-97 composition by arrival cohort and naturalization, Men, 2007-2015 (no upper age limit)
Expand
Arrival cohort
1964-73 1974-83 1984-93 1994-03 2004-10 Total N
% % % % % %
ISCED-97, non-naturalized immigrant
0-2 55.3 42.6 42.4 35.4 24.9 39.0 26,150
3-4 36.7 39.0 40.5 36.4 35.9 37.4 24,463
5-6 8.0 18.4 17.1 28.2 39.2 23.6 14,774
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 65,387
N 12,773 6,034 13,544 19,792 13,244 65,387
ISCED-97, naturalized immigrant
0-2 26.1 18.5 21.1 28.9 33.4 24.2 5,816
3-4 44.6 50.8 58.5 55.2 48.8 55.6 13,483
5-6 29.3 30.7 20.4 15.9 17.8 20.2 4,926
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 24,225
N 1,114 2,607 11,348 8,513 643 24,225
ISCED-97, naturalized/recognized Ethnic German
0-2 28.1 22.5 23.0 28.9 28.1 25.6 8,515
3-4 42.2 45.7 54.1 49.2 42.4 50.0 16,737
5-6 29.7 31.8 22.9 21.9 29.5 24.4 8,239
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 33,491
N 2,570 4,242 14,093 11,228 1,358 33,491

2.2.5 Employment indicators by naturalization status

Note: Restricted in terms of upper age bound (age 25-54).

This comparison is most sensible for all arrival cohorts except the first (sample size). For the last cohort, differences might indicate a trend, but the generally short time-span after it’s conclusion warrants caution.

2.2.5.1 Employment

In term of employment rates, naturalized immigrants seem to be quite positively selected (also ethnic Germans), women very strongly so. The difference is up to 10 pp. for women of the 1984-1993 cohort. Selectivity also seems a little different across cohorts, albeit this might be largely due to the different durations of stay. Although employment rates change considerably in some cases when including naturalized immigrants, the overall interpretation remains unchanged. Given the restrictions of our analysis, we would generally tend to underestimate the labor market integration of immigrants in terms of employment rates, particulalry regarding women, overestimating gaps to the native population.

Table 25. Employment rate (in %) by arrival cohort and naturalization, Women, 2007-2015
Expand
Arrival cohort
1964-73 1974-83 1984-93 1994-03 2004-10 Total
Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean
Non-naturalized immigrant 53.49 59.46 60.43 54.78 48.39 54.29
Naturalized immigrant 53.21 69.49 77.96 74.07 58.81 74.91
Naturalized/recognized Ethnic German 39.24 70.58 75.58 70.39 55.51 71.46
Total 52.70 63.91 69.15 61.08 49.23 61.08
Table 26. No. of obs.: Employment rate (in %) by arrival cohort and naturalization, Women, 2007-2015
Expand
Arrival cohort
1964-73 1974-83 1984-93 1994-03 2004-10 Total N
n n n n n n
Non-naturalized immigrant 194 2515 12324 25516 17122 57670 53,939
Naturalized immigrant 38 730 6125 5806 561 13260 14,767
Naturalized/recognized Ethnic German 13 1064 8318 9186 1449 20031 22,256
Total 245 4309 26767 40508 19133 90961 90,962
N 225 4,384 27,801 40,654 17,898 90,962
Table 27. Employment rate (in %) by arrival cohort and naturalization, Men, 2007-2015
Expand
Arrival cohort
1964-73 1974-83 1984-93 1994-03 2004-10 Total
Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean
Non-naturalized immigrant 70.30 76.92 79.92 79.98 79.68 79.71
Naturalized immigrant 57.74 84.89 87.58 87.37 73.23 86.76
Naturalized/recognized Ethnic German 66.86 82.98 86.23 84.84 76.85 84.86
Total 67.29 79.94 83.63 82.30 79.32 81.97
Table 28. No. of obs.: Employment rate (in %) by arrival cohort and naturalization, Men, 2007-2015
Expand
Arrival cohort
1964-73 1974-83 1984-93 1994-03 2004-10 Total N
n n n n n n
Non-naturalized immigrant 88 2227 11267 18779 13917 46278 41,656
Naturalized immigrant 27 704 5536 4903 403 11573 13,471
Naturalized/recognized Ethnic German 8 1067 7660 7371 1028 17135 19,861
Total 124 3998 24463 31054 15348 74987 74,988
N 122 4,157 25,973 31,048 13,688 74,988
(a) Women, by period
(b) Men, by period

Figure 5. Employment rates shown for non-German immigrants (our standard definition, solid lines) and all immigrants including those who naturalized (dashed lines).

Sample is restricted to western Germany, including Berlin.
Source: Microcensus Scientific Use Files, DOI: 10.21242/12211.1976.00.00.3.1.0 to 10.21242/12211.2015.00.00.3.1.0, own calculations.

2.2.5.2 Working hours

In term of working hours, naturalized immigrants also seem to be slightly positive selected, at least women of the cohorts 1974-83, 1984-93 and 1994-03. However, the general interpretation of our results would be unchanged when including naturalized immigrants.

Table 29. Weekly working hours (actual) by arrival cohort and naturalization, Women, 2007-2015
Expand
Arrival cohort
1964-73 1974-83 1984-93 1994-03 2004-10 Total
Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean
Non-naturalized immigrant 29.94 28.13 26.24 25.63 28.14 26.56
Naturalized immigrant 29.41 29.74 27.80 26.10 25.01 27.08
Naturalized/recognized Ethnic German 35.62 29.18 28.36 26.83 27.19 27.65
Total 30.05 28.72 27.36 26.02 27.95 26.94
Table 30. No. of obs.: Weekly working hours (actual) by arrival cohort and naturalization, Women, 2007-2015
Expand
Arrival cohort
1964-73 1974-83 1984-93 1994-03 2004-10 Total N
n n n n n n
Non-naturalized immigrant 194 2515 12324 25516 17122 57670 53,939
Naturalized immigrant 38 730 6125 5806 561 13260 14,767
Naturalized/recognized Ethnic German 13 1064 8318 9186 1449 20031 22,256
Total 245 4309 26767 40508 19133 90961 90,962
N 225 4,384 27,801 40,654 17,898 90,962
Table 31. Weekly working hours (actual) by arrival cohort and naturalization, Men, 2007-2015
Expand
Arrival cohort
1964-73 1974-83 1984-93 1994-03 2004-10 Total
Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean
Non-naturalized immigrant 36.65 40.20 39.28 38.09 38.04 38.46
Naturalized immigrant 47.88 41.33 39.44 39.12 38.67 39.41
Naturalized/recognized Ethnic German 38.33 39.91 39.33 39.04 38.33 39.19
Total 38.87 40.33 39.34 38.49 38.08 38.78
Table 32. No. of obs.: Weekly working hours (actual) by arrival cohort and naturalization, Men, 2007-2015
Expand
Arrival cohort
1964-73 1974-83 1984-93 1994-03 2004-10 Total N
n n n n n n
Non-naturalized immigrant 88 2227 11267 18779 13917 46278 41,656
Naturalized immigrant 27 704 5536 4903 403 11573 13,471
Naturalized/recognized Ethnic German 8 1067 7660 7371 1028 17135 19,861
Total 124 3998 24463 31054 15348 74987 74,988
N 122 4,157 25,973 31,048 13,688 74,988
(a) Women, by period
(b) Men, by period

Figure 6. Weekly working hours shown for non-German immigrants (our standard definition, solid lines) and all immigrants including those who naturalized (dashed lines).

Sample is restricted to western Germany, including Berlin.
Source: Microcensus Scientific Use Files, DOI: 10.21242/12211.1976.00.00.3.1.0 to 10.21242/12211.2015.00.00.3.1.0, own calculations.

2.2.5.3 ISEI-88

In terms of occupational status, the picture is much more mixed. Naturalized immigrants are strongly positively selected compared to the non-naturalized for cohorts 1974-83 (women and men) and 1984-1993 (women). Cohort 1994-03 seems to be negatively selected. As for the other indicators: Interpretation remains largely unchangend when considering the naturalized. However, the relative labor market outcomes across cohorts change, they all are very similar now (except for the last cohort).

Table 33. ISEI-88 (employed only) by arrival cohort and naturalization, Women, 2007-2015
Expand
Arrival cohort
1964-73 1974-83 1984-93 1994-03 2004-10 Total
Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean
Non-naturalized immigrant 30.89 36.35 35.44 38.00 42.36 38.43
Naturalized immigrant 36.16 41.18 37.19 34.21 34.27 36.01
Naturalized/recognized Ethnic German 40.63 40.66 37.61 37.25 40.75 37.78
Total 32.07 38.41 36.63 37.14 41.94 37.83
Table 34. No. of obs.: ISEI-88 (employed only) by arrival cohort and naturalization, Women, 2007-2015
Expand
Arrival cohort
1964-73 1974-83 1984-93 1994-03 2004-10 Total N
n n n n n n
Non-naturalized immigrant 194 2515 12324 25516 17122 57670 53,939
Naturalized immigrant 38 730 6125 5806 561 13260 14,767
Naturalized/recognized Ethnic German 13 1064 8318 9186 1449 20031 22,256
Total 245 4309 26767 40508 19133 90961 90,962
N 225 4,384 27,801 40,654 17,898 90,962
Table 35. ISEI-88 (employed only) by arrival cohort and naturalization, Men, 2007-2015
Expand
Arrival cohort
1964-73 1974-83 1984-93 1994-03 2004-10 Total
Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean
Non-naturalized immigrant 37.25 38.92 36.63 39.27 43.68 39.93
Naturalized immigrant 44.73 43.25 37.00 34.67 36.18 36.36
Naturalized/recognized Ethnic German 29.64 43.64 38.30 37.25 41.30 38.33
Total 38.17 41.04 37.25 38.00 43.35 38.96
Table 36. No. of obs.: ISEI-88 (employed only) by arrival cohort and naturalization, Men, 2007-2015
Expand
Arrival cohort
1964-73 1974-83 1984-93 1994-03 2004-10 Total N
n n n n n n
Non-naturalized immigrant 88 2227 11267 18779 13917 46278 41,656
Naturalized immigrant 27 704 5536 4903 403 11573 13,471
Naturalized/recognized Ethnic German 8 1067 7660 7371 1028 17135 19,861
Total 124 3998 24463 31054 15348 74987 74,988
N 122 4,157 25,973 31,048 13,688 74,988
(a) Women, by period
(b) Men, by period

Figure 7. Employment rates shown for non-German immigrants (our standard definition, solid lines) and all immigrants including those who naturalized (dashed lines).

Sample is restricted to western Germany, including Berlin.
Source: Microcensus Scientific Use Files, DOI: 10.21242/12211.1976.00.00.3.1.0 to 10.21242/12211.2015.00.00.3.1.0, own calculations.

2.2.6 Covariate distribution by arrival cohort and gender: Education, age, and arrival age

Table 37. Education and age composition by arrival cohort
Expand
Women Men All
ISCED (%) Age ISCED (%) Age Women
0-2 3-4 5-6 Mean 0-2 3-4 5-6 Mean %
Year: 1976
Germans (n=151,809) 48.5 45.7 5.8 40.1 20.3 60.0 19.7 39.5 51.0
Arrival cohort 1964-73 (n=5,553) 71.0 23.3 5.7 33.7 55.9 35.0 9.1 34.6 43.0
Year: 1985
Germans (n=153,247) 34.8 54.8 10.5 39.7 14.6 58.9 26.6 39.6 50.1
Arrival cohort 1974-83 (n=3,973) 58.0 25.5 16.5 34.7 35.8 37.2 27.0 34.0 52.2
Year: 1995
Germans (n=153,006) 18.9 64.3 16.8 38.9 9.2 59.2 31.6 38.8 50.0
Arrival cohort 1984-93 (n=4,301) 48.8 30.6 20.6 34.6 36.0 40.2 23.8 34.1 48.8
Year: 2004
Germans (n=144,271) 14.4 63.4 22.2 40.4 9.4 58.2 32.4 40.4 50.4
Arrival cohort 1994-03 (n=4,121) 39.5 32.8 27.7 34.3 31.4 37.9 30.8 34.9 53.4
Year: 2011
Germans (n=136,686) 10.8 61.6 27.6 41.1 8.1 57.3 34.7 41.1 50.0
Arrival cohort 2004-10 (n=3,723) 28.5 31.1 40.4 34.3 24.4 34.9 40.6 34.8 52.5
Table 38. Arrival age composition by cohort, Women
Expand
Arrival cohort
1964-73 1974-83 1984-93 1994-03 2004-10 Total
% % % % % %
18-27 (n=91,807) 80.2 72.5 63.1 54.6 45.5 62.5
28-37 (n=41,746) 17.6 22.5 29.1 33.6 37.6 28.7
38-47 (n=11,411) 2.2 4.6 7.1 10.6 14.4 7.9
48-54 (n=1,279) 0.0 0.4 0.7 1.2 2.4 0.9
Total (n=146,243) 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Table 39. Arrival age composition by cohort, Men
Expand
Arrival cohort
1964-73 1974-83 1984-93 1994-03 2004-10 Total
% % % % % %
18-27 (n=84,244) 72.9 73.2 62.0 52.2 41.0 61.0
28-37 (n=41,615) 24.6 22.0 30.9 34.9 38.4 30.2
38-47 (n=10,464) 2.4 4.4 6.5 11.5 17.6 7.9
48-54 (n=1,199) 0.0 0.5 0.6 1.4 3.0 0.9
Total (n=137,522) 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

3 Results


Indicator means. Plotted if cell count >= 100.

3.1 Employment

(a) Women, by duration of stay
(b) Men, by duration of stay
(c) Women, by period
(d) Men, by period

Figure 8. Employment rates (as share of sample population) by arrival cohort, gender, duration of stay and period.

Sample is restricted to western Germany, including Berlin .
Source: Microcensus Scientific Use Files, DOI: 10.21242/12211.1976.00.00.3.1.0 to 10.21242/12211.2015.00.00.3.1.0, own calculations.

Table 40. Means by arrival cohort and duration of stay: Employment rate (in %), Women
Expand
Arrival cohort
German 1964-73 1974-83 1984-93 1994-03 2004-10 Total
Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean
1 44.01 22.07 26.40 35.67 32.04
2 50.78 28.96 33.18 33.98 42.46 37.87
3 53.76 37.03 32.43 37.17 46.34 41.35
4 58.03 33.14 33.98 37.89 46.39 41.89
5 60.29 39.51 38.06 42.44 49.27 45.92
6 62.76 37.44 37.27 45.11 45.65
7 64.10 38.33 39.96 47.47 47.46
8 66.43 40.34 43.02 47.62 49.35
9 67.29 35.48 44.17 49.61 49.14
10 71.44 39.37 47.13 52.19 52.53
11 71.33 39.45 47.01 54.33 53.03
12 71.37 63.56 43.59 48.68 56.13 56.67
13 74.11 62.68 44.50 49.48 57.69
14 73.44 66.57 45.46 53.28 59.69
15 75.23 60.11 45.48 55.23 59.01
16 75.93 59.74 49.64 54.53 59.96
17 75.65 60.29 49.20 54.09 59.81
18 74.89 61.49 47.54 57.30 60.31
19 76.99 58.78 48.88 61.31 61.49
20 76.64 60.18 51.40 61.11 62.33
21 77.21 61.28 51.31 62.44 63.06
22 77.78 60.88 52.27 61.22 63.04
23 77.89 57.72 52.48 62.70
24 77.66 58.83 56.15 64.21
25 76.92 61.12 55.24 64.42
26 75.33 58.81 58.76 64.30
27 72.14 57.51 55.11 61.59
28 69.54 55.86 56.79 60.73
29 69.50 56.08 55.02 60.20
30 69.67 57.07 59.90 62.22
Total 69.60 59.92 46.48 47.13 44.20 44.03 54.37
Table 41. Means by arrival cohort and duration of stay: Employment rate (in %), Men
Expand
Arrival cohort
German 1964-73 1974-83 1984-93 1994-03 2004-10 Total
Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean
1 57.12 53.54 57.41 70.44 59.63
2 67.15 77.76 63.99 61.68 74.66 69.05
3 71.73 77.65 63.75 65.21 77.95 71.26
4 77.55 77.16 66.51 68.47 82.05 74.35
5 80.06 77.12 68.61 71.94 80.45 75.64
6 81.77 78.89 71.00 72.19 75.96
7 81.39 79.71 75.06 73.54 77.43
8 83.87 82.40 76.56 75.10 79.48
9 85.53 83.58 76.87 76.20 80.54
10 84.96 84.68 78.70 78.06 81.60
11 85.05 84.42 79.05 80.04 82.14
12 85.99 92.00 86.08 78.73 81.32 84.82
13 86.26 92.32 82.54 78.34 84.87
14 87.42 91.29 84.32 78.75 85.45
15 86.53 91.77 84.88 78.41 85.40
16 87.85 90.51 82.03 77.94 84.58
17 87.51 90.73 83.04 79.94 85.31
18 86.57 90.42 82.89 79.93 84.95
19 87.40 88.37 82.09 79.66 84.38
20 87.05 90.07 80.85 76.99 83.74
21 86.93 89.20 79.79 80.66 84.14
22 88.01 84.94 81.08 80.60 83.66
23 86.32 82.06 83.65 84.01
24 87.05 82.24 81.79 83.69
25 85.85 80.16 78.55 81.52
26 86.03 75.69 80.56 80.76
27 84.72 76.02 80.58 80.44
28 82.10 77.32 74.84 78.09
29 81.97 78.87 74.62 78.49
30 86.70 78.14 69.01 77.95
Total 83.15 85.38 80.57 74.71 71.76 77.11 79.86
Table 42. Means by arrival cohort and period: Employment rate (in %), Women
Expand
Arrival cohort
Germans 1964-73 1974-83 1984-93 1994-03 2004-10 Total
Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean
1976 48.88 61.66 55.27
1978 50.83 65.07 57.95
1980 52.07 62.76 57.41
1982 53.40 60.91 57.15
1985 54.83 62.39 39.00 52.07
1987 56.07 59.32 37.21 50.87
1989 57.89 58.90 37.06 51.28
1991 64.54 64.66 47.16 58.79
1993 65.66 59.71 46.34 57.24
1995 66.76 59.83 46.30 37.13 52.51
1996 68.44 59.70 46.43 38.53 53.27
1997 69.49 55.40 49.36 38.81 53.27
1998 70.43 51.43 48.56 41.54 52.99
1999 72.20 54.48 50.16 43.10 54.98
2000 73.67 56.29 51.83 46.85 57.16
2001 74.62 59.38 53.91 49.54 59.36
2002 74.55 57.07 58.72 51.22 60.39
2003 74.46 54.49 54.70 51.23 58.72
2004 74.08 56.67 51.86 39.09 55.43
2005 73.67 55.48 55.09 40.40 56.16
2006 75.76 53.89 54.69 43.82 57.04
2007 77.12 57.11 58.31 47.17 59.93
2008 77.63 56.29 59.84 48.82 60.65
2009 78.25 60.28 58.18 52.64 62.34
2010 79.29 65.01 59.82 53.39 64.38
2011 80.72 62.37 59.89 56.47 49.63 61.82
2012 80.88 60.20 63.79 58.97 49.76 62.72
2013 81.54 58.99 61.18 59.82 53.69 63.04
2014 82.00 63.55 59.75 54.19 64.87
2015 82.77 61.55 62.42 52.85 64.90
Total 69.75 59.08 52.21 52.65 51.90 52.02 58.16
Table 43. Means by arrival cohort and period: Employment rate (in %), Men
Expand
Arrival cohort
Germans 1964-73 1974-83 1984-93 1994-03 2004-10 Total
Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean
1976 94.43 93.88 94.15
1978 94.71 94.95 94.83
1980 94.91 96.06 95.49
1982 92.96 90.99 91.97
1985 90.80 89.61 76.54 85.65
1987 89.80 89.14 80.31 86.42
1989 90.60 90.18 82.74 87.84
1991 91.66 89.93 87.73 89.77
1993 90.15 85.80 82.48 86.14
1995 89.39 79.00 82.84 71.30 80.63
1996 88.78 76.57 81.99 69.60 79.24
1997 88.46 77.04 81.54 69.63 79.17
1998 89.04 75.96 82.78 73.93 80.42
1999 89.62 76.40 78.43 76.81 80.32
2000 90.23 76.23 82.44 81.11 82.50
2001 89.97 76.32 83.00 81.56 82.71
2002 88.84 75.51 80.60 79.76 81.18
2003 87.85 74.24 78.86 77.72 79.67
2004 86.91 75.72 75.37 67.29 76.32
2005 87.13 77.11 75.44 69.08 77.19
2006 87.94 77.29 77.40 70.73 78.34
2007 89.22 78.55 77.89 74.23 79.97
2008 89.64 75.80 79.42 76.75 80.41
2009 88.73 76.96 79.56 77.34 80.65
2010 88.79 76.06 79.76 77.76 80.59
2011 89.68 77.79 81.21 82.57 81.33 82.52
2012 90.12 75.00 80.35 84.75 83.01 82.65
2013 89.75 74.89 81.32 83.39 81.04 82.08
2014 89.63 80.58 82.60 82.25 83.77
2015 89.94 80.20 85.67 83.69 84.87
Total 89.99 83.77 79.48 77.62 77.68 82.26 82.62

Additional check for drop in employment rates of men of 1964-1973 cohort beginning in 1991: Particularly affected by unemployment, as shown in the tables below. Many seem to have chosen early retirement over unemployment.

Table 44. Employment status cohort 1964-1973 by period, Men
Expand
Employment status
Employed Unemployed (available) Non-employed Total
n % n % n % n %
1976 (n=3,160) 422,171 93.9 18,679 4.2 8,857 2.0 449,707 100.0
1978 (n=3,410) 459,138 95.0 14,686 3.0 9,714 2.0 483,538 100.0
1980 (n=3,622) 495,156 96.1 10,714 2.1 9,571 1.9 515,441 100.0
1982 (n=3,228) 416,729 91.0 31,286 6.8 10,000 2.2 458,015 100.0
1985 (n=3,981) 501,413 89.6 44,339 7.9 13,807 2.5 559,559 100.0
1987 (n=3,630) 458,933 89.1 43,345 8.4 12,586 2.4 514,864 100.0
1989 (n=2,557) 435,512 90.2 31,660 6.6 15,743 3.3 482,915 100.0
1991 (n=2,169) 362,518 89.9 22,379 5.6 18,222 4.5 403,119 100.0
1993 (n=1,879) 332,803 85.8 33,877 8.7 21,195 5.5 387,875 100.0
1995 (n=1,548) 259,055 79.0 43,229 13.2 25,616 7.8 327,901 100.0
1996 (n=1,357) 223,305 76.6 35,602 12.2 32,711 11.2 291,618 100.0
1997 (n=1,131) 184,111 77.0 29,369 12.3 25,503 10.7 238,982 100.0
1998 (n=1,030) 161,094 76.0 26,896 12.7 24,099 11.4 212,089 100.0
1999 (n=840) 133,320 76.4 20,446 11.7 20,729 11.9 174,495 100.0
2000 (n=680) 108,796 76.2 15,778 11.1 18,152 12.7 142,725 100.0
2001 (n=581) 93,896 76.3 11,018 9.0 18,113 14.7 123,027 100.0
2002 (n=441) 70,399 75.5 9,950 10.7 12,888 13.8 93,237 100.0
2003 (n=346) 55,193 74.2 9,968 13.4 9,180 12.3 74,341 100.0
2004 (n=229) 35,528 72.9 7,996 16.4 5,239 10.7 48,763 100.0
2005 (n=123) 20,075 67.8 5,598 18.9 3,915 13.2 29,589 100.0
2006 (n=102) 18,549 76.3 2,257 9.3 3,515 14.5 24,321 100.0
2007 (n=51) 8,507 72.0 1,130 9.6 2,178 18.4 11,815 100.0
2008 (n=19) 2,245 56.7 651 16.5 1,062 26.8 3,958 100.0
2009 (n=10) 1,685 87.8 234 12.2 0 0.0 1,919 100.0
Total (n=36,124) 5,260,130 86.9 471,087 7.8 322,596 5.3 6,053,813 100.0
Table 45. Main subsistence source cohort 1964-1973 by period, Men
Expand
Main subsistence source
Employment Unemployment and other (also non-public) benefits Pension Maintenance Own wealth, rent, interest Total
n % n % n % n % n % n %
1976 (n=3,160) 425,885 94.7 14,250 3.2 2,000 0.4 6,571 1.5 1,000 0.2 449,707 100.0
1978 (n=3,410) 464,138 96.0 9,543 2.0 1,857 0.4 7,571 1.6 429 0.1 483,538 100.0
1980 (n=3,622) 498,156 96.6 6,714 1.3 3,143 0.6 6,000 1.2 1,429 0.3 515,441 100.0
1982 (n=3,228) 422,300 92.2 23,000 5.0 2,857 0.6 8,429 1.8 1,429 0.3 458,015 100.0
1985 (n=3,981) 500,984 89.5 37,706 6.7 7,986 1.4 10,455 1.9 2,429 0.4 559,559 100.0
1987 (n=3,630) 458,076 89.0 39,060 7.6 7,586 1.5 10,143 2.0 0 0.0 514,864 100.0
1989 (n=2,557) 435,039 90.1 30,169 6.2 11,167 2.3 6,012 1.2 528 0.1 482,915 100.0
1991 (n=2,169) 361,777 89.7 22,012 5.5 12,652 3.1 6,271 1.6 407 0.1 403,119 100.0
1993 (n=1,879) 332,269 85.7 30,899 8.0 16,472 4.2 7,996 2.1 239 0.1 387,875 100.0
1995 (n=1,548) 258,204 78.7 38,725 11.8 21,980 6.7 8,206 2.5 784 0.2 327,901 100.0
1996 (n=1,357) 222,036 76.1 43,107 14.8 20,866 7.2 4,961 1.7 647 0.2 291,618 100.0
1997 (n=1,131) 181,477 75.9 36,044 15.1 15,084 6.3 5,390 2.3 988 0.4 238,982 100.0
1998 (n=1,030) 160,283 75.6 29,453 13.9 17,244 8.1 4,429 2.1 681 0.3 212,089 100.0
1999 (n=840) 131,935 75.6 24,936 14.3 12,673 7.3 4,156 2.4 796 0.5 174,495 100.0
2000 (n=680) 108,596 76.1 19,037 13.3 11,513 8.1 3,163 2.2 417 0.3 142,725 100.0
2001 (n=581) 92,251 75.0 15,900 12.9 11,303 9.2 3,367 2.7 205 0.2 123,027 100.0
2002 (n=441) 69,718 74.8 12,247 13.1 8,543 9.2 2,285 2.5 445 0.5 93,237 100.0
2003 (n=346) 54,657 73.5 11,882 16.0 5,649 7.6 2,153 2.9 0 0.0 74,341 100.0
2004 (n=229) 34,544 70.8 9,380 19.2 3,705 7.6 1,134 2.3 0 0.0 48,763 100.0
2005 (n=123) 19,444 65.7 5,963 20.2 2,858 9.7 1,323 4.5 0 0.0 29,589 100.0
2006 (n=102) 18,351 75.5 2,692 11.1 2,859 11.8 177 0.7 243 1.0 24,321 100.0
2007 (n=51) 7,963 67.4 2,040 17.3 1,250 10.6 304 2.6 258 2.2 11,815 100.0
2008 (n=19) 2,007 50.7 1,013 25.6 814 20.6 124 3.1 0 0.0 3,958 100.0
2009 (n=10) 1,685 87.8 234 12.2 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1,919 100.0
Total (n=36,124) 5,261,774 86.9 466,003 7.7 202,063 3.3 110,619 1.8 13,353 0.2 6,053,813 100.0

3.2 Working Hours

(a) Women, by duration of stay
(b) Men, by duration of stay
(c) Women, by period
(d) Men, by period

Figure 9. Weekly working hours by arrival cohort, gender, duration of stay and period.

Sample is restricted to western Germany, including Berlin .
Source: Microcensus Scientific Use Files, DOI: 10.21242/12211.1976.00.00.3.1.0 to 10.21242/12211.2015.00.00.3.1.0, own calculations.

Table 46. Means by arrival cohort and duration of stay: Weekly working hours (actual), Women
Expand
Arrival cohort
German 1964-73 1974-83 1984-93 1994-03 2004-10 Total
Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean
1 35.14 36.21 31.67 32.43 33.86
2 32.29 34.72 33.31 29.82 30.09 32.05
3 28.97 37.71 32.37 28.33 27.79 31.03
4 28.59 35.78 31.31 27.09 27.26 30.00
5 27.93 36.47 30.48 26.81 27.97 29.93
6 28.74 34.98 29.31 27.03 30.02
7 28.28 36.19 29.53 25.84 29.96
8 27.91 35.46 28.42 26.00 29.45
9 28.20 33.77 28.81 26.36 29.29
10 27.66 35.00 29.07 26.37 29.53
11 27.69 34.19 27.54 25.79 28.80
12 26.88 37.53 33.24 28.36 25.85 30.37
13 27.05 37.26 33.21 26.62 31.03
14 27.59 37.01 32.76 26.69 31.01
15 27.37 37.10 30.62 27.17 30.56
16 27.40 36.19 31.14 26.06 30.19
17 27.52 37.76 31.12 26.18 30.65
18 27.95 37.05 30.27 26.42 30.43
19 27.72 36.14 30.74 26.61 30.30
20 28.34 34.70 30.56 26.37 29.99
21 28.35 36.11 30.13 26.13 30.18
22 28.78 34.99 30.39 26.77 30.23
23 28.78 34.51 30.00 31.10
24 29.40 34.35 29.36 31.04
25 29.07 33.57 29.70 30.78
26 29.84 32.10 29.77 30.57
27 30.34 33.11 28.88 30.78
28 29.73 33.13 27.77 30.21
29 30.30 32.44 29.47 30.74
30 29.65 32.27 29.02 30.31
Total 28.78 35.12 32.15 28.62 27.25 29.11 30.47
Table 47. Means by arrival cohort and duration of stay: Weekly working hours (actual), Men
Expand
Arrival cohort
German 1964-73 1974-83 1984-93 1994-03 2004-10 Total
Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean
1 40.64 42.43 40.58 38.92 40.64
2 39.65 42.15 41.27 38.95 37.78 39.96
3 39.80 42.95 39.77 38.48 38.47 39.89
4 40.19 41.29 39.76 38.29 37.68 39.44
5 39.35 41.66 40.24 37.69 37.60 39.31
6 39.71 42.67 39.13 38.28 39.95
7 40.24 41.33 39.87 38.06 39.88
8 39.85 41.87 39.47 37.71 39.72
9 40.09 42.22 39.95 37.72 40.00
10 39.68 41.74 40.10 38.51 40.01
11 39.59 41.61 40.20 38.93 40.08
12 39.50 41.77 41.82 41.28 38.30 40.54
13 39.30 41.55 41.86 41.37 41.02
14 39.60 41.15 40.85 40.65 40.56
15 39.63 41.10 41.13 40.08 40.49
16 39.67 40.91 41.45 39.31 40.34
17 39.45 41.32 41.19 39.86 40.45
18 39.80 40.46 41.46 39.73 40.36
19 39.46 40.77 40.79 39.52 40.14
20 39.93 40.53 41.32 39.48 40.32
21 39.70 40.02 42.07 39.23 40.25
22 39.98 39.98 41.48 39.18 40.16
23 39.52 39.43 40.64 39.86
24 39.69 39.76 41.26 40.24
25 40.25 40.01 41.71 40.66
26 39.82 39.97 39.85 39.88
27 39.40 40.61 40.95 40.32
28 40.13 40.00 40.05 40.06
29 40.15 40.81 40.09 40.35
30 39.57 41.36 40.79 40.57
Total 39.78 40.61 41.39 40.09 38.46 38.09 40.16
Table 48. Means by arrival cohort and period: Weekly working hours (actual), Women
Expand
Arrival cohort
Germans 1964-73 1974-83 1984-93 1994-03 2004-10 Total
Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean
1976 35.24 38.38 36.81
1978 34.84 38.28 36.56
1980 34.62 38.03 36.32
1982 33.87 36.39 35.13
1985 34.37 37.29 36.30 35.99
1987 34.02 37.17 34.64 35.28
1989 33.57 36.41 33.90 34.63
1991 32.27 35.25 32.13 33.22
1993 31.81 34.01 31.73 32.52
1995 31.67 34.18 30.90 31.31 32.02
1996 31.57 33.87 31.72 30.02 31.79
1997 31.32 32.35 30.54 29.62 30.96
1998 31.11 32.78 31.72 29.00 31.15
1999 30.75 31.60 29.23 28.49 30.02
2000 30.67 33.08 30.58 29.33 30.91
2001 30.43 31.80 28.42 27.94 29.65
2002 30.23 31.43 29.69 27.56 29.73
2003 29.96 31.55 29.93 27.06 29.62
2004 29.96 29.65 25.95 27.85 28.35
2005 29.94 29.59 25.72 26.96 28.05
2006 29.29 27.30 26.76 25.60 27.24
2007 29.48 28.22 26.07 25.36 27.28
2008 29.66 29.57 26.01 25.70 27.74
2009 29.43 26.96 25.06 25.54 26.75
2010 29.61 28.71 26.00 25.92 27.56
2011 29.90 28.14 26.80 25.73 28.30 27.77
2012 29.93 27.41 26.47 25.48 27.10 27.28
2013 29.96 26.09 25.49 28.12 27.42
2014 30.19 26.94 25.81 27.91 27.71
2015 30.41 27.13 25.62 27.55 27.68
Total 31.34 34.66 30.30 27.40 25.92 27.80 30.15
Table 49. Means by arrival cohort and period: Weekly working hours (actual), Men
Expand
Arrival cohort
Germans 1964-73 1974-83 1984-93 1994-03 2004-10 Total
Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean
1976 43.70 41.69 42.70
1978 43.45 41.69 42.57
1980 43.48 41.87 42.67
1982 43.14 41.28 42.21
1985 43.57 41.12 42.04 42.24
1987 43.23 40.79 41.94 41.99
1989 43.00 40.76 41.96 41.91
1991 42.56 40.05 41.12 41.24
1993 41.89 39.15 40.83 40.62
1995 42.09 40.20 42.15 40.57 41.25
1996 42.19 40.08 40.80 39.57 40.66
1997 42.46 40.31 41.43 39.36 40.89
1998 42.48 40.72 42.07 40.17 41.36
1999 42.59 39.77 41.50 39.51 40.84
2000 42.66 40.57 41.90 40.14 41.32
2001 42.52 40.93 41.51 40.95 41.48
2002 42.27 40.93 40.83 40.30 41.08
2003 42.04 40.42 41.05 40.51 41.01
2004 42.14 39.92 40.84 39.10 40.50
2005 42.62 40.96 41.09 38.20 40.72
2006 41.80 39.56 39.29 37.70 39.59
2007 42.04 39.95 40.05 38.06 40.03
2008 41.89 41.26 39.78 37.68 40.15
2009 40.95 39.71 38.36 37.62 39.16
2010 41.30 40.61 39.54 38.19 39.91
2011 41.39 40.61 39.94 38.25 38.35 39.71
2012 41.26 40.29 39.41 38.17 37.76 39.38
2013 40.95 38.26 38.38 37.98 38.90
2014 40.87 38.57 38.30 37.81 38.89
2015 40.66 39.06 38.32 37.65 38.92
Total 42.24 40.68 41.04 39.78 38.17 37.91 40.61
(a) Women, full-time employment
(b) Men, full-time employment
(c) Women, part-time employment
(d) Men, part-time employment
(e) Women, marginal employment
(f) Men, marginal employment

Figure 10. Full-time, part-time and marginal employment (as share of employed sample population) by arrival cohort, gender, and period.

Full-time employment means working at least 35 hours per week, part-time employment 15-35 hours, and marginal employment 1-15 hours. Sample is restricted to western Germany, including Berlin .
Source: Microcensus Scientific Use Files, DOI: 10.21242/12211.1976.00.00.3.1.0 to 10.21242/12211.2015.00.00.3.1.0, own calculations.

3.3 ISEI

(a) Women, by duration of stay
(b) Men, by duration of stay
(c) Women, by period
(d) Men, by period

Figure 11. ISEI-88 scores by arrival cohort, gender, duration of stay and period.

Sample is restricted to western Germany, including Berlin .
Source: Microcensus Scientific Use Files, DOI: 10.21242/12211.1976.00.00.3.1.0 to 10.21242/12211.2015.00.00.3.1.0, own calculations.

Table 50. Means by arrival cohort and duration of stay: ISEI-88 (employed only), Women
Expand
Arrival cohort
German 1964-73 1974-83 1984-93 1994-03 2004-10 Total
Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean
1 47.95 39.86 42.45 47.50 44.44
2 42.34 41.04 37.63 40.66 44.16 41.17
3 39.74 41.27 37.38 39.66 43.84 40.38
4 37.91 40.25 37.55 38.70 43.11 39.50
5 36.11 38.95 37.24 38.07 41.30 38.33
6 36.14 38.28 37.31 38.25 37.49
7 35.79 38.85 36.95 38.50 37.52
8 36.16 35.87 35.50 38.66 36.55
9 36.48 37.99 36.09 38.83 37.35
10 36.46 40.57 36.74 39.14 38.23
11 36.84 36.24 35.75 38.55 36.84
12 37.02 33.60 36.90 37.23 38.05 36.56
13 36.38 33.63 37.29 35.84 35.78
14 36.33 33.07 37.28 35.96 35.66
15 36.93 33.50 35.44 35.42 35.32
16 36.99 32.71 36.01 35.58 35.32
17 36.62 33.79 36.72 35.93 35.77
18 37.34 33.22 36.24 36.08 35.72
19 37.72 33.67 35.49 36.11 35.75
20 38.26 32.89 36.69 35.16 35.75
21 38.16 34.47 34.33 35.63 35.65
22 38.76 33.60 35.39 35.22 35.74
23 38.76 34.55 34.50 35.94
24 38.72 33.80 35.41 35.98
25 38.70 33.37 34.76 35.61
26 40.70 33.09 36.28 36.69
27 40.32 33.88 36.42 36.87
28 40.90 33.72 37.10 37.24
29 43.20 34.11 38.70 38.67
30 41.90 33.57 35.95 37.14
Total 38.52 33.59 37.11 36.46 39.13 43.98 37.28
Table 51. Means by arrival cohort and duration of stay: ISEI-88 (employed only), Men
Expand
Arrival cohort
German 1964-73 1974-83 1984-93 1994-03 2004-10 Total
Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean
1 49.37 43.55 43.99 48.03 46.23
2 42.28 40.77 40.45 42.78 46.41 42.54
3 41.03 40.98 37.72 40.93 44.48 41.03
4 38.67 39.16 37.01 39.69 42.77 39.46
5 37.18 38.71 36.52 39.05 42.26 38.74
6 36.40 38.17 35.13 39.46 37.29
7 35.68 37.40 36.53 38.44 37.01
8 36.38 37.37 36.18 38.81 37.18
9 36.46 37.38 35.48 38.70 37.01
10 36.51 38.75 36.82 39.28 37.84
11 36.79 37.91 35.98 39.64 37.58
12 37.03 34.66 39.42 37.20 40.04 37.67
13 36.80 34.13 37.31 36.55 36.20
14 36.99 33.54 38.81 36.62 36.49
15 37.18 34.48 37.70 37.12 36.62
16 36.56 33.60 38.18 37.03 36.34
17 37.12 34.07 37.53 36.89 36.40
18 37.50 33.06 37.20 36.72 36.12
19 37.68 33.26 38.25 36.31 36.37
20 38.46 33.38 38.03 36.50 36.59
21 38.68 34.07 38.97 37.63 37.34
22 39.46 33.75 38.27 37.69 37.29
23 39.39 33.38 38.99 37.25
24 39.99 34.20 38.90 37.70
25 40.81 33.77 38.81 37.80
26 41.43 33.84 37.53 37.60
27 41.47 34.28 38.24 38.00
28 42.63 33.68 39.18 38.50
29 42.49 33.99 38.02 38.17
30 44.08 35.14 37.82 39.01
Total 39.08 33.91 38.41 37.16 40.07 44.79 38.06
Table 52. Means by arrival cohort and period: ISEI-88 (employed only), Women
Expand
Arrival cohort
Germans 1964-73 1974-83 1984-93 1994-03 2004-10 Total
Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean
1976 39.12 32.99 36.06
1978 39.64 33.32 36.48
1980 40.02 32.77 36.40
1982 40.61 33.04 36.82
1985 41.61 33.50 39.74 38.28
1987 42.12 33.03 37.92 37.69
1989 42.39 33.97 37.33 37.90
1991 42.38 33.21 36.07 37.22
1993 43.97 33.94 35.29 37.73
1995 44.67 33.94 36.89 37.55 38.27
1996 44.67 33.94 36.09 36.18 37.72
1997 44.81 34.02 35.95 36.94 37.93
1998 44.88 33.62 35.20 36.36 37.52
1999 44.82 33.43 35.00 36.50 37.44
2000 44.73 33.67 36.50 36.28 37.79
2001 44.78 35.19 34.80 36.04 37.70
2002 45.01 33.14 35.36 35.35 37.21
2003 45.04 35.30 35.69 36.48 38.13
2004 45.28 35.52 35.66 37.58 38.51
2005 45.25 36.82 35.83 39.35 39.31
2006 45.29 36.13 36.02 38.61 39.01
2007 45.44 37.71 36.10 38.60 39.46
2008 45.50 36.68 35.65 38.28 39.03
2009 45.76 36.23 36.01 38.52 39.13
2010 45.90 37.43 36.19 38.95 39.62
2011 46.11 36.00 34.90 38.40 41.96 39.47
2012 46.31 34.99 35.84 37.96 42.62 39.55
2013 46.50 34.91 37.18 42.28 40.22
2014 46.71 34.86 37.54 41.49 40.15
2015 47.04 33.79 36.18 40.48 39.37
Total 44.21 33.67 36.32 35.88 38.09 41.77 38.41
Table 53. Means by arrival cohort and period: ISEI-88 (employed only), Men
Expand
Arrival cohort
Germans 1964-73 1974-83 1984-93 1994-03 2004-10 Total
Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean
1976 42.16 34.07 38.11
1978 41.98 33.83 37.90
1980 42.11 33.22 37.66
1982 42.83 34.03 38.43
1985 43.58 33.54 39.55 38.89
1987 43.86 34.11 37.48 38.48
1989 44.13 33.53 38.21 38.63
1991 43.92 33.63 39.37 38.97
1993 44.75 33.45 37.62 38.61
1995 45.12 34.39 38.16 37.44 38.78
1996 45.11 33.72 37.25 35.77 37.96
1997 45.30 34.20 37.20 35.88 38.14
1998 45.35 33.85 37.47 36.28 38.24
1999 45.25 34.09 38.74 36.05 38.53
2000 45.25 34.57 37.87 36.36 38.51
2001 45.39 34.13 38.19 36.17 38.47
2002 45.56 34.33 39.24 35.84 38.74
2003 45.71 35.66 38.57 35.90 38.96
2004 45.70 37.67 36.60 39.38 39.84
2005 46.14 39.56 38.55 40.77 41.26
2006 46.11 38.30 37.14 40.02 40.39
2007 46.05 39.04 37.10 38.92 40.28
2008 46.12 38.84 36.55 39.22 40.18
2009 46.46 37.95 36.94 39.31 40.17
2010 46.57 37.93 35.99 39.58 40.02
2011 46.91 38.81 36.38 39.20 43.36 40.93
2012 47.15 39.57 36.74 39.55 43.43 41.29
2013 47.29 40.69 36.56 39.25 42.44 41.25
2014 47.35 36.69 39.52 41.92 41.37
2015 47.67 36.65 38.97 42.05 41.34
Total 45.23 34.02 38.47 36.55 39.47 42.64 39.52

Additional check for age restriction effects: Regarding skill selectivity in arrival age, our sample restriction to persons between age 25 and 54 means that migrants arriving at age 18-23 ‘grow into’ our sample. For example, a person who immigrated at age 20 is first part of our analysis sample after 5 years of stay in Germany. If those young migrants who grow into our sample are less skilled and take on lower status employment than older arrivals who are already included, this might explain part of the decline in occupational status over the first years of residence. Comparing the educational levels between these two groups for a duration of stay of 1-6 years, this general pattern is indeed what we find for all cohorts but the first (see Tables 15, 19). Consequently, accounting for this kind of selectivity in our occupational status analysis (by extending the age range to 18-54) leads to attenuated declines in ISEI scores in the first years of residence, particularly for women:

(a) Women, age 25-54
(b) Men, age 25-54
(c) Women, age 18-54
(d) Men, age 18-54

Figure 12. ISEI-88 scores by arrival cohort, gender, and duration of stay and period. Different age restrictions.

Sample is restricted to western Germany, including Berlin.
Source: Microcensus Scientific Use Files, DOI: 10.21242/12211.1976.00.00.3.1.0 to 10.21242/12211.2015.00.00.3.1.0, own calculations.

Additional check for possible employment delays for the less educated: Turning to our second assumed selection issue, employment delays for the lower skilled, we compare the absolute number of employed migrants by cohort and duration of stay between different educational levels. Generally, in the very first years of residence, the number of employed migrants with ISCED levels 5-6 is as high or even higher than the number of those with ISCED levels 0-2 and 3-4. However, this composition quickly changes with longer durations of stay, when more and more migrants with low or medium educational levels take up employment. As a result, the average education of migrants in employment decreases in the first years of stay, matching the observed initial decline in occupational status Despite some smaller differences, this general pattern seems to hold for women and men of all cohorts.

(a) Women
(b) Men

Figure 13. Number of persons in employment (population projection) by arrival cohort, gender, and duration of stay.

Sample is restricted to western Germany, including Berlin.
Source: Microcensus Scientific Use Files, DOI: 10.21242/12211.1976.00.00.3.1.0 to 10.21242/12211.2015.00.00.3.1.0, own calculations.


4 References


Bundesagentur für Arbeit (2020). Klassifikation der Berufe. https://statistik.arbeitsagentur.de/Navigation/Statistik/Grundlagen/Klassifikationen/Klassifikation-der-Berufe/Klassifikation-der-Berufe-Nav.html [retrieved May 3, 2020]

Destatis (2020). Bevölkerung und Erwerbstätigkeit: Wanderungen.

Ganzeboom, H. B. G., De Graaf, P. M. & Treiman, D. J. (1992). A Standard International Socio-Economic Index of Occupational Status. Social Science Research, 21, 1–56. https://doi.org/bqszp9

International Labor Organization (2020). ISCO - International Standard Classification of Occupations. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/bureau/stat/isco/isco08/index.htm [retrieved May 3, 2020]